Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Concept Of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Commerce Essay

The Concept Of organisational Citizenship Behaviour Commerce mental testifyThe concept of OCB has been implemented in giving medications for their telling functioning and has promoted such expression in mankind and secluded validations, just now in teachingal education institution OCB is still an unfamiliar concept. Thus, OCB is a useful term to mention voluntary teacher expression that go Extra Mile to attend to students and colleagues to succeed. Thus, the conduct of OCB and in cutting(p)ness of teachers is vital so as to motivate them to do beyond of their formal duties and making military capability/ con amount of teachers as necessitate for the betterment of institution. Thus, teachers in well functioning education institutions consistently go beyond the negligible expectations of formal crease descriptions and contracts, hence, demonstrating goodwill, smooth functioning and might of education institutions. Thus teachers in universities with high citize nship take it upon themselves to volunt atomic number 18 in advance(p) suggestions, shop at extra-curricular activities and serve on new comities and seminars more(prenominal) related to their studies. moreover, teachers help students on their own duration, stay after university to help students if necessary and resist the enticement to give students busy in wee-wee. organisational citizenship behavior in universities provides a serious educational context in which teachers ar rargonly absent, deem effective use of their time, work collaborately and emphasize on captain activities which imports in increase of their metier and this instant influence the public presentation of teachers. The term OCB was stolon introduced by Bateman and Organ (1973).Background of the moot.Organ (1988) originally coined the term government citizenship behavior (OCB) and defined them as individual behavior that is discretional, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward s ystem, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Also the willingness of the farewellicipant to go beyond the formal requirements of their position has been recognized as an essential component of the effective organization. Thus, OCBs tidy sum be said to lubricate the social machinery of the organization.Organ (1988) provided a multidimensional scale of OCB. The scale consists of five dimensions that make up the OCB invent the five dimensions areAltruism It is the behavior directed at destiny a specific person at work (e.g. co proletarians or supervisor). For subject, altruism involves activities such as volunteering to assist a coworker with a project in you are not directly involves activities, or without existence asked, assisting new employees. conformity Generalized compliance is employee conscientiousness that surpass enforceable work standards. For example, reason out compliance involves activities such as doing more than what i s required to meet minimum task requirements or offering specific caprices to solve organisational problems without being asked.Sportsmanship Sportsmanship is the tolerance of nuisances on the tune (e.g. when employee endure impositions or inconveniences without compliant). Sportsmanship involves activities such not complaining or making huge issues out of minor problems or inconveniences.Courtesy Courtesy is the act of touching the base with others before pickings actions or making decisions that would carry on their work (e.g. issuing reminders to coworkers, giving coworkers expel notice and passing along information).Civic Virtue Civic merit is the active participation and involvement of employees in company affairs and embarrasss activities such as attending meetings, responding to messages and keeping up with organisational issues. As an example of antithetic conceptualizations of OCBStatement of the problem.Teaching effectiveness is a major last of education. It is re cognized that breeding effectiveness has a far-fetched effect on the boilersuit educational programme. Teachers competence refer to the behavior while teaching in a class. Effective teachers use pupils time differently than the less effective ones. Effective teachers spend more time in academic activities and teaching learning process. They inculcate the ideas into the minds of the students by applying diverse teaching strategies for this occasion they bewilder humorists and witty in the classroom. They concentrate on communication skills. They focus on the subject matter and monitor the overall educational activities in classroom specifically and in the educational institution in general effectiveness in the sence that optimal results or near to such is obtained on the part of the pupils we in Pakistan are divided into different types of educational systems i.e. Government run, private and Madrassas or Maktabs. The teaching standard is different. Their evaluation criterion is also different. More conveniently, the curriculum and examination system are not the like. Due to these reasons the effectiveness need to be evaluated and its descent with organisational citizenship behavior (OCB). But as an individual each of the employee, whether he/she is a teacher or not, must(prenominal) be able to show the most favourable results in their assorted(prenominal) fields. Different approaches are followed to assess effectiveness. It is conditional to the concerned field for which the employees persona is judged. The variables or yardsticks may be different the ultimate purpose is the same Effectiveness. Similar is the case with measuring organisational citizenship behaviourObjectives of the prove.The main clinical of this think is to buzz off out any race mingled with organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness of university teachers.Finding on job or inseparable factors that influence a teacher organizational citizenship behavior and his/ her effectiveness.The extent of personalized growth and overall integrity provided by the institution.Giving recommendations for further improvement.1.4 range of a function of the seeA teacher can be effective if he/she gets out of the job what he wants to get. There is a close human race amidst organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness (teaching).Falling standard of education is common now a days. So one may bear down the teachers responsible for the deterioration of education teachers may be termed responsible but identification of the facts of their job, which any(prenominal)times lead the teachers towards ineffectiveness is also the responsibility of the system. These facts go away to some(prenominal) the external and internal environments of the teachers this study will help in the finding of such factors.CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF LITERATURE organizational citizenship behaviors and exertion has actually the subject matter of numerous inquiry scholars. They p ick out conducted various research studies and collections. The views of the various research scholars regarding organizational citizenship behavior and performance are enumerated as under.2.1 Employee Behavior and Job Performance.Rotundo and Sacket (2000, P. 66) defined job performance as those actions and behaviors that are under withstand of the individuals and that contribute to the achievement of the organizations objectives. In higher(prenominal) education setting, Regoxs (2003) finds support for the relationship among OCB and the performance of university teachers, and in turns of students lord motivation and self confidence. His finding suggest that university teacher OCB may be associated with the quality of the teaching learning processes, however, that association is a unpublished to date. most(prenominal) of the early research on OCB focuse on its antecedents. More recently, increase attention has been paid to the consequences of OCB (Padaskoff, et al.,2000).Finding f rom this line of research indicate that OCB has outstanding consequences for both the organization and individual employee (Podaskoff, et al.,2000). At the organizational level, studies indicate that OCB I related to organization effectiveness (Podsakoff, Ahearne, and Mackenzie, 1997 Podsakoff and Mackenzie, 1994 Walz and Wiehoff, 1996).At the individual level, OCB has been anchor to affect supervisory evaluations of employee performance (Podaskoff, Mackenzie and Hui, 1993) reward recommendations .Katz (1964) states that three basic types of employee behaviors are particular for the overall effectiveness of any organization.People must be generate to remain within the system.People must carry out their fictional character assignment in a dependable fashion.There must be innovative and spontaneous activity in achieving organizational objectives that goes beyond the constituent specifications.Behaviors (2) and (3) are the examples of Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Or gan, 1988) other examples of OCB are willingness to give time helping others who redeem work-related problems, taking steps to prevent problems with other worker and obeying organization rules, regulations and procedures even when no one is watching. Postulating that OCB may lead to demonstrable outcomes such as high organizational performance and low turnover, researcher name investigated key antecedents of OCB (e.g Moorman, 1991 Organ and Konvovsky 1996 Podsakoff et al., 1990 Smith et al., 1983).Gregory Murphy et al., (2002) made a study to examine the role of OCB as a component of job performance. Participants comprised 41 human- serve up workers, who completed a job merriment questionnaire and were rated for their organizational citizenship, as well as being measured on three discretionary organizational participant behaviours job satisfaction correlated significantly with organizational citizenship behavior (Correlations ranged from + 0.40 to 0.67).2.2 Factors Effecting th e Organizational Behavior.Carol C. Bienstock, et al., (2003) piss investigated that OCB links human alternative management policies to desired expediency employee performance, enhancing customer perceptions of service quality and organizational financial outcomes. Furthermore, it demonstrates that these behaviors results in more effective service delivery to an organizational standards and enhance customer perceptions of service quality.Aaron Cohen, et al., (2004) were find the relationship betwixt the dimensions of professionalism (profession as referred, sence of calling autonomy) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was direct or liaise by variables representing justice perceptions (distributive justice, international justice, and formal procedures). Respondents were 1,0.35 registered nurses in four public hospitals in northern isreal. Supervisors in each medical unit at the hospitals provided information strongly supported the mediated model, namely the relations hip between professionalism and OCB was mediated by variables representing justice in the workplace. The mediated effect as stronger for Jewish nurses than for non-jewish nurses and for nurses with academic education in comparison to nurses with a non-academic educational several(prenominal) implications are drawn for the continuing examination of OCB.Carmen Barroso Castro, et al., (2004) hold in psychoanalysed the effect of the service company employee behavior on customer perceptions of the quality of service received, and the consequent company performance. Organizational citizenship behavior has been recognized as pertinent behavior of some employee, but its role regarding customer perceptions and company favorableness remains unexplored. Beginning with a brief review of the conceptual background signal of the organizational citizenship behavior, service quality, and its consequence, this paper proposes a model to test these relationships empirically.Daniel J. Comeau et al. , (2005) drive conducted experiment on how the interaction of interdependence work environment and employee constitution affect organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). geomorphological interdependence, as defined by levels of tasks and goal interdependence, was manipulated in the laboratory setting to mildew the effect on individual level OCB. Also, a turnabout analysis was utilized to determine whether interdependence could act as a moderator for the relationship between the disposition variable agree bleness and OCB and conscientiousness and OCB.Ferry Koster et al., (2006) have conducted a written report and ga in that respectd information from 674 employees nine organizations scales are constructed using five-fold congregation method. OLS regression is used to test the hypothesis, which contribute to the literature on OCB by examining how this kind of behavior is affected by the behavior of the supervisors and coworkers and this article also focus on horizontal and ve rtical dimensions of cooperative behavior simultaneously.Jose Varela Gonzalez, et al., (2006) have shown the relationship between organization service orientation (OSO), strive employee job satisfaction and organization citizenship behavior (OCB). For this they have carried a prospect of 149 hotels firms which provides eimperical usher about the confident(p) effect of the OSO on employee job satisfaction and citizenship behavior in the hospitality industry.Soumend Biswas et al., (2007) indicated the relationship between psychological climate and employee performance, in the Indian environment that includes organization citizenship behavior (OCB) and job satisfaction as mediating variables. information were taken from 357 managerial employees in the manufacturing and service sector to analyze the relationship. The result supports the hypothesis that individuals perceptions of the psychological climate in the organization has a significant positive impact on his/her willingness t o engage in OCBs, as well as on his/her job satisfaction levels. Further, OCB and job satisfaction levels have a significant impact on individuals performance.Jawahar, I.M and doyen Carr (2007) conducted and muckle to measure conscientiousness and contextual performance of professional employees. Data of 158 professional employees were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and moderate hierarchical analysis was used to test hither to untested hypothesis. This study makes several contributions. For instance, it extends Motowildo et al., theory to include subjective measures of situational conditions as factor that interact with personality to influence contextual performance the study responds to lepline et als call for theory based attempts to identify variable that have different relationships across the dimensions of contextual performance.Drawing on individual difference and social exchange perspectives this study theorized and found that comprehend organizational supports moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and organization directed contextual performance and that the quality of the leader member exchange gravel moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and supervisor directed contextual performance.EVIJ, Hetty et a., (2007) examined the relationship between personality and three types of OCBs (Organizational Citizenship Behaviors), and to test for the potential moderating effects of police squad leader effectiveness on the relationship between personality and OCBs. supposal were test with data from 268 teachers of secondary schools. The result indicate that extroverts and teachers open for interpret engage more in OCBs towards their school than introverts and teachers less open for experience do. Teachers that are more conscientious score higher on OCBs towards students. That fits with the idea that being conscientious is being careful and responsible. Teachers with introverts and neurotic personalities become more e ngage in OCBs than extroverts and emotionally stable teachers do when they appreciate their team up leader effectiveness.Omer Torlak and Umut Koc (2007) has made a study in which they examined the relationship between the materialistic locations of sales people working in pharmaceutical and domicile white goods and furniture (HWGF) sectors and their OCB. A total of 199 sales people who work for pharmaceutical and HWGF sectors in Eskischir, Turkey were subject fielded. The questionnaire consisted of devil scales to measure materialistic tendencies and OCB, respectively.The results of the study early indicate that materialistic attitude is one of the antecedents that have a blackball impact on OCB. There are negative correlations between all dimensions of OCB and materialistic attitude.Manrique de Lara, PZ et al., (2007) have examined the relationship between an unfavourable attitudinal environment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the proposed model suggests that o rganization anomic (OA) acts as a moderator of that link, and thus OA interacts with unfavourable attitudes and OCB by tightening their theoretical negative association. Data collected from 154 non teaching staff at a Spanish public university. Accessibility of the individual email work outs was similar for all employees. E-mail intercommunicate for collaboration were sent in two phases. A questionnaire was posted on the university interanet and could be accessed by clicking on a link in the e-mails multiple hierarchical regression results support the moderating role of OA of the unfavourable attitude OCB link because the unfavourable attitudes towards coworkers and towards the boss as-a-person among employees with compared with high OA, have a stronger negative relationship with OCB. OA moderation existed, but to varying degrees, between attitudes toward. Ones job and some dimensions of OCB (OCBI, and OCBI client). OA also intensified the unpredicted positive relationship between attitudes toward bosss performance and OCB. No moderating influences were observed in the case of attitudes toward oneself and toward clients (students).R. Gert et al., (2007) has conducted a survey of the development of the cognition share-out and the role of cognition sharing in predicting turnover intensions of registered professional nurses. A literature study was conducted to determine the concepts and activities associate to knowledge sharing in regulate to compile the questionnaire. The questionnaire was factor examine in order to determine the factor structure of the instrument. Thereafter, the construct of knowledge sharing was introduced together with organization culture and various proposed mediating variables, namely organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction, as well as various demographic variables to develop a predictive model of turnover intentions by means of applying general linear modeling. A cross sectional field sur vey design was used with a sample of 530 registered professional nurses in south-central Africa. A significant negative relationship was found between knowledge sharing behavior and turnover intentions. Furthermore, knowledge sharing interaction with organization culture in a final model where all the selected mediating and demographic variables were simultaneously entered into the equation to predict turnover intentions.Kim, Sangmook (2006) the main theme of this study is to investigate whether the distinct classes of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) such as altruism and generalized compliance are shown in the Korean context, and whether public service motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment are predictors of OCB in Korean civil servants.Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied to survey data of 1584 civil servants in Korea to examine the relationship between predictors and two dimensions of OCB. This canvas the effect of public service motivatio n on OCB, and shows that public service motivation emerges as a more significant predictor of OCB in the public sector of Korea.It contributes to enhancing the applicability and meaningfulness of the concept of OCB across different cultures.Juliana D. Lilly et al., (2006) have made a study on the effect that work locale of control has on perceptions of trust, comprehend organizational support, adjective justice and interactive justice. Data were collected from 679 alumi of a university in the southwestern USA. Regression analyses and morphologic equation modeling were used to test a series of hypotheses.The result indicate that work locus of control has a significant positive relationship on all variables. Perceived organizational support richly mediated the relationship between the work locus of control and perceptions of both procedural and interacional justice. Organizational trust fully mediated the relationship between work locus of control and interactional justice, but on ly partly mediated the relationship between work locus of control and procedural justice.2.3 Perception Regarding OCBCaroline Aube et al., (2007) have conducted a research on that perceived organizational support (POS) is positively and significantly correlated with affective and prescriptive commitment. The sample data includes 249 prison employees, that is by questionnaires. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis also support the moderating effect of locus of control and work autonomy with regard to the relationship between POS and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of providing support to employees in order to faster their affective and normative commitment to the organization. Moreover, the results provide evidence in favour of managerial interventions aimed at enhancing perceived control and consequently, minimizing the negative effects of a lack of organization support on employees affective commitment.In addition to taking into acco unt here dimensions of organizational commitment, this study underlines personality and job design factors that can modulate the relationship between POS and organizational commitment.Joo Y. Jung et al., (2008) have explore the relationship between the organizational culture (Organizational Citizenship Behavior OCB), TQM practice and organizational performance of the manquiladora companies. A structural equation modeling based on a cross sectional survey (N = 230) is conducted. As multinational companies (MNCs) implement innovative management methodology such as TQM practices, their organizational culture elements shape significant roles towards the outcome. The organizational culture, represented by OCB, significantly impacts how TQM is managed and implemented. Furthermore, the result consign out soft TQM elements have more significant impact than to a great extent TQM element towards firms performance. The findings suggest that management should also focus on the unalienable m otivations of employees represented by OCB rather than the role emphasis on training and education.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe previous chapter shows that a lot of research has been carried out in the past to study the relationship f organizational citizenship behavior with different variables. Here is another attempt to evaluate the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and effectiveness of teachers a case study of University of Peshawar this chapter consists of population, sampling, sources of data collection, method for gathering data and statistical analysis.3.1 Purpose of the try outAs stated earlier the main purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness of university teachers.3.2 creationAll teachers working in University of Peshawar constitute the population for this research study.3.3 takeSampling is a process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population, (i.e. sample), so that a study of the sample and understanding of its properties or characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population elements for example sample statistic X (the sample mean) and S (standard deviation) are used as estimates of the population parameter m and d .3.4 Stratified Random Sampling modeAs its name implies, involves a process of stratification or segregation, followed by random selection of subjects from each stratum. The population is first divided into reciprocal exclusive i.e. each of the groups should be internally homogenous and externally different from one another, groups that are relevant, appropriate and meaningful in the context of the study and subjects are selected randomly from each stratum. In the present research case a proportionate stratified random sample is used because there is a probability that the population frame of different stratum may be the same sample and the same perce ntage of population is taken. For the purpose of collecting data the University of Peshawar having faculties of Arts and Humanities, Islamic and oriented studies, life and environmental sciences, management and information sciences, numerical and physical sciences and faculty of social sciences have been considered as a stratum. Employees of each strata have been selected through stratified random sample for the comparative study.3.5 HypothesisNull Hypothesis Ho Teachers have OCB and teachers have not OCB are equally effective.Alternative Hypothesis (HA) Teachers have OCB is more effective than teachers have not OCB.3.6 Research Tools/InstrumentsThe following two instruments will be used and utilized for collecting and gathered data. They areQuestionnaireObservation check list3.7 Test StatisticSometimes, the actual measurement or counts of individual or objects are either not available, or dead-on(prenominal) assessment is not possible, they are then arranged in order according to some characteristics of interest. Such an ordered arrangement is called a rank and the order given to an individual or object is called its rank. The correlation between such sets of ranking is cognise as Rank correlation.By edictWheredi = xi yixi is the first observationyi is the 2nd observationIt is known as spearmans coefficient of Rank correlation.has the least assess and is zero when the numbers are incomplete agreement.i.e.When they are in complete disagreement attains the maximum value equal tors = -1 for =In case any tied observation is found the formula becomes.r =Where xi and yi are ranks given to two objects. stands for summation/sumx stands for organizational citizenship behavior-OCBy stands for effectiveness of teachingn stands for number of observation.LITERATURE CITEDBateman and Organ (1973). Employee Psyche, international journal of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728 Bateman and Organ (1973). Employee Psyche, International ledger of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728B. Soumendu, V. Arup (2007) Psychological climate and individual performance in India test of mediated model, Employee Relations, Vol. 29, No.5C. Aaron, K. Yardena (2004) Professionalism and OCB An eimperical examination among isreali nurses diary of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 19 No. 9C.B. Carmen, A.M. Armario, R.M. David (2004) The Influence of employee organizational Citizenship behavior on customer loyality. Internal journal of Service Industry Management Vol. 15 No. 1C.J. Daniel, G.L. Richard (2005) Structural Interdependence, individual(prenominal)ity and organizational citizenship behavior An examination of personal environment interaction, in-person Review, Vol. 34 No. 3.G. Teresa, G.V. Jose (2006) Structural relationships between organizational service orientation, contact employee job satisfaction and citizenship behavior, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 17 No. 1.H. Soonkwan, J.Y. Joo (2008) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), TQM and performance a t the maquiladora, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, VOl. 25J. Everd, R. Gert (2007) The development of a knowledge sharing construct to predict turnover intentions, Aslib proceedings New InformationJawahar I.M, C. Dean (2007) Conscientiousness and contextual performance, the compensatory effects of perceived organizational support and leader member exchange, Journal of Management Psychology, Vol. 22 No. 4.Katz (1964) Effects of Organizational Citizen Ship, Management Research News, Vol. 5K, Sungmook (2006) Public service motivation and organizational citizenship behavior, International Journal of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728K. Ferry, S. Karin (2006) Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships An eimperical comparison Personal Review, Vol. 35 No., R. Espino (2007) Organizational anomie as moderator of the relationship between an unfavourable attitudinal environment and citizenship behavior (OCB) An eimperical study among university administra tion and service personal, Personal Review, Vol. 36 No. 6M. Gregory, A. James, K. Neville (2002) Job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behavior A study of Australian human service professionals Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 4 P. 288M. Gregory, A. James, K. Neville (2002) Job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behavior A study of Australian human service professionals Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 4 P. 288Organ (1988) Concepts of Organisational Behaviour , Employee Relations, Vol. 29,T. Omer, K. Unut (2007) freelance(a) attitude as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior, Management Research News, Vol. 30 No. 8

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