Monday, September 30, 2019

World Civilizations

Ancient world civilizations date back from 3500-500 BC. Some of the early ancient include Egypt, the Roman Empire, the Baghvad Gita, Mesopotamia and Deities of Warriors to mention a few.. Research conducted by scholars indicate that civilizations did not begin in the west as most people believe. As a matter of fact ancient civilization began from the northern desert and the Mediterranean regions. Civilization was not an event but a process. It therefore did not happen spontaneously but took length of time. There are various ancient civilizations as already mentioned which include Egypt, Mesopotamia, Warriors and Deities in the Near East, India’s Beginnings, Ancient China among others. This paper focuses on each one of them analyzing how each was established. The history of ancient Egypt was characterized by fascination. Egypt is actually of the ancient establishments that may be said to have been rich in civilizations. Some of the memorable fascinations that characterize Egypt’s civilization included; the pyramids, the sphinx, Chariots of the Gods, writings wall paintings and a whole lot of works of art. These among others help us understand the style and way of life in ancient Egypt including their way of life. The geographical location of Egypt is north eastern of the African continent. It took slighting above 300 years. Civilization of ancient Egypt was also characterized of control of resources both human and natural. Other activities included irrigation, mining of minerals, trade and military ventures. Mesopotamia is also another ancient civilization whose geographical location is between two rivers known as Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia is actually said to be the first world civilization among all other ancient civilizations. Some major activities that characterized ancient Mesopotamia included construction of levees to control destructive flooding. Irrigation using canals was also very common. History has it that the southern part of Mesopotamia came to be known as Sumer and thus the residents were known as Sumerians. The Sumerians had civilized systems of administration where they organized themselves in city states. Their place of worship was known as Ziggurat and only priests were allowed since it was a sacred place. Every city state had at lease one temple. Other characteristics of ancient Mesopotamia included was an ancient form of writing known as Cuneiform and Stylus which was instrument made from reed which they used to write. Young boys also attended a school known Edubba after which they graduated to scribes. Also classified among the ancient world civilizations is China whose history of establishment dates back to 15th century BC. The major characteristic of this ancient civilization is the writings which looked like turtle shells. However China is known to have experienced political instability. This may have been as a result of the various dynasties that constituted the whole Kingdom. Originally ancient China was made up of city states which later grew to dynasties. China administration was based on dynasties until recently. In the Near East the Major characteristic was warriors and Deities. The warriors were considered stronger active and more hardworking than other people. There were gods who facilitated the success of war. In conclusion every ancient civilization had some features which characterized its establishment. However, as noted all civilizations took quite a process. All civilizations have however changed and most of them are now modern.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Discrimination and Special Educational Needs

HOME BASED CHILDCARE CYPOP5 TASKS 1-3 TASK 1 (Produce an information sheet which outlines the following: the current legislation for home based childcare and the role of regulatory bodies. ) The current legislations are as follows: * Sex Discrimination Act (1975) This backed by the Equal Opportunities Commission and its aims is to make sure people are not discriminated against on the basis of their gender. * Race Relations Act (1976) which has been amended in (2000) This is to ensure individual are given a fair opportunity and the appropriate measures are put into place to achieve that goal. Education Act (1981) This brought a significant change in through the wishes of parents ‘rights’ so that children with disabilities could be educated in ordinary schools. * Public Health (Control of Disease) Act (1984 This explains in great detail the notification and exclusion periods for certain infectious diseases. * Education Reform act (1988) This brought about the process of th e (National Curriculum) in schools. * Education Act (1993) This made some very important changes to the Education Act 1981 and the law relating to children with special educational needs. These changes are now consolidated in the Education Act 1996. The Code of Practice and the SEN Tribunal were the major innovations as was the enforcement of strict time limits for completing assessments of special educational needs by Local Education Authorities. * Code of Practice for the Identification and Assessment of Children with Special Educational Needs (1994 which was revised in (2001) This is guidance specifically aimed at children who have Special Educational Needs (SEN) for the Local Authorities and the aim was designed to promote a high level of standards for all pupils through inclusive education. Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation (RIDDOR) (1995) Outlines certain incidents or accidents that must be reported by law; For e. g. A Fracture, other than to fingers, thumbs and toes. * Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations (1995) This is about Food Temperature control and general food safety; this is not yet applicable to childminders to register for although good hygiene practices must be adhered to. * Family Law Act (1996) Guidance relating to safeguarding children. * Disability Discrimination Act (1995) This was established by the Parliament for to ensure the rights of disabled individuals in the United Kingdom. * Education Act (1997) This combined all the Acts since 1944 into one Act. This entailed a full framework of identifying and assessing a child’s particular needs as set out in the (The Code of Practice) * Code of Practice for First Aid (1997) Gives guidance on detailed specification for trained First Aiders and First Aid Requirements. * Human Rights Act (1998) This came into force in (2000) and was set out by the European Convention on Human Rights, this outlines basic rights. (I. E. The right to life) * Protection of Children Act (1998) A Private members bill, which was introduced by Debra Shipley (MP) its provisions are designed to help strengthen procedures for vetting people who work with children. * Data Protection Act (1998) The Act covers any data about a living and identifiable individual and prevents confidential information being passed on without the individuals permission. In practice it provides a way for individuals to control information about themselves, in the case of children parents must give permission. * Special Educational Needs & Disability Act (2001) The act required schools, colleges, universities, adult education providers, statutory Youth service and local education authorities to make ‘reasonable provisions' to ensure people with disabilities or special needs were provided with the same opportunities as those who were not disabled. For e. g. wheelchair access if required Although was replaced by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. * Care of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (2002) This deals with identification by risk assessment, control of exposure, health surveillance and incident planning, storage of cleaning fluids. * Health Protection Agency Act (2004) The Health Protection Agency is an independent UK organisation that was set up by the government in 2003 to protect the public from threats to their health from infectious diseases and environmental hazards and it does this by providing advice and information to the General Public, Health Professionals such as Doctors and Nurses and to the Local/National government * Children Act (2004) This Act's ultimate purpose is to make the UK better and safer for children of all ages the idea behind the Act is to promote co-ordination between multiple official entities to improve the overall well-being of children. Every Child Matters’ 5 Outcomes are Identified: * Be Healthy * Stay Safe * Enjoy and achieve * Make a Positive Contribution * Achieve economic well-being * Childcare Act (2006) Introduced the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England. TASK 2 (In order to operate a registered home base childcare service the following policies and procedures must be in place: accidents, ill ness and emergencies; behaviour; safeguarding; equal opportunities. ) Write a policy for each of the above, and write a procedure to explain how each of the policies will be implemented. policies and 4 procedures are required ACCIDENT POLICY The safety of your child is paramount and I will take every measure I can to protect your child from hurting themselves. My premises have been checked and they meet the EYFS Welfare Requirements for childminding outlined by Ofsted. I also regularly review, update and practice safety routines. As a registered childminder, I am legally required to have a valid first aid certificate. I can administer basic first aid treatment, and my first aid box is clearly labelled and easily accessible. It is stored in the kitchen. Parent contact numbers are with the first aid box. I hold written permission from parents to get emergency treatment for their child if it is needed If an untoward incident occurs I will follow the following process: ACCIDENT PROCEDURE * Comfort and reassure the child Carry out First Aid if necessary. * Call an ambulance if necessary and attend hospital with the child. * I will also contact you immediately if a serious accident has occurred or if a minor accident has happened will contact you once the child has settled down. Fill in an accident report sheet and give you a copy of this. * Inform Ofsted and get additional advice/support from relevant bodies. * Other children in my care will be looked after by another child minder Details are as follows Atia Begum or in exceptional circumstances where Atia is not available my sister Aisha Qamar will take over. * Ask you to keep me advised of your child's condition following an accident if we have had to seek medical attention ILLNESS AND EMERGENCIES POLICY There is no charge for any period of non-attendance due to childminder illness. Although Full fees apply for any period of non-attendance due to child or parent illness. Unwell children are welcome to attend their scheduled hours so long as they meet the following criteria, based on Ofsteds national standards. Your child is welcome to attend so long as he/she 1. Does not have a contagious or infectious illness 2. Has not had vomiting or diarrhoea within the last 48 hours 3. Has eaten within the last 12 hours. 4. Is not coughing. 5. Does not have a raised temperature 6. Is not restless, irritable or over-tired 7. Is not bunged up or congested, or has thick and permanent runny nose. ILLNESS ND EMERGENCIES PROCEDURE Children who are coughing may attend so long as the cough is non-productive and they are being treated with a cough medicine. Children with runny noses may attend if they are being treated with medicine to treat their cold. All medication required by the child must be signed for, prior to the child’s attendance. If a form is not signed, no medication will be administered. A signature is required for all medication administered during the child’s scheduled hours. If the child becomes unwell, or does not meet the above criteria during their attendance, it may become necessary to send the child home. If you are in any doubt about a child’s ability to attend childminding hours, please telephone to discuss. If the child is not attending, please give as much notice as possible. If the child is unwell but able to attend, please mention this when they are dropped off so that plans may be changed if required. If you are unsure about a child’s health, or if medication is required, please speak to the child’s doctor, health visitor or a pharmacist. BEHAVIOUR POLICY * Do not feed or play with the animals without permission. * Keep coats, shoes and belongings tidied away. * Always sit when eating, ideally at the table. * No aggressive behaviour, biting, hitting, calling names. * Do not pick up babies or toddlers. * Always wash hands after going to the toilet or touching the animals. No jumping on the furniture. * Always wash your hands before eating. * Flush the chain after using the toilet, and replace the lid. * Treat other children and adults with respect and good manners. Handle toys with care. * Always remove shoes when upstairs. * No running ahead when out walking. * Always ask permission before removing car seat belts or opening car doors. * Never hang toys or limbs out of car doors or windows. BEAVIOUR PROCEDURES The NCMA (National Child Minding Association) recommended method of dealing with ‘naughty’ behaviour is through a time out session lasting only one minute per year of age. This involves encouraging t he child to sit quietly until the period is over. No child will be smacked or excluded from the room. Ongoing disobedience will be brought to your attention so a suitable solution can be reached. If it becomes necessary to restrain your child (For example a temper tantrum by the road side) you will be notified in writing. Good behaviour will be rewarded and encouraged by the use of praise, certificates and gold stars. The house rules are laid down to help children know what is expected of them while within the childminding setting. These rules are for the safety of your child and the other children around them, as well as the house and pets. Your child will not be punished for breaking the rules but will be encouraged not to. Please help with this, even if you do not follow the same rules within your own home. SAFEGUARDING AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Omar I wouldn’t put the Safeguarding procedure and Equal opportunities together, they need to be separated. The safeguarding policy needs ,more information in regards to what you would do if you suspected a child had been abused – recording, speaking to parents if appropriate, making a referral if necessary I have given you some information with this on. I understand that child abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional and neglectful, or a mixture of these. I must notify Ofsted of any allegations of abuse that are alleged to have taken place while the child is in my care. Signs of abuse can vary widely and require professional involvement, which is why all childminders and anyone who had regular contact with another person’s child, must be aware of child abuse and report any suspicions. Under the Child Protection Act I am required, by law, to keep a record of any accidents or injuries which occur within my care or outside of my care. I have accident report forms which I will complete for any injury which occurs in childminding hours, which will require your signature. I also require you to fill in ’existing injury forms’ for any bumps and bruises received at home. In addition to being an equal opportunities environment, no child will be turned away due to ethical background or religious beliefs. Every attempt will be made to respect any cultural beliefs and wishes. Children with disabilities are welcome, providing their needs can be catered for. Children within my childminding setting will be exposed to and educated about a wide range of different religious and cultural beliefs. This will be used to teach all children to appreciate cultural diversity and to respect the beliefs of others around them. It will also help children feel confident and proud of their own background, whatever it may be. As part of their voyage into equality and diversity, children will be encouraged to join in celebrations into other country’s culture, religious festivals,  charity events and their own family background. It is important to remember that equal opportunities are not about treating everyone the same, but to understand their differences with an open and tolerant mind. Children will learn through positive awareness that differences are good things and should be celebrated and respected. SAFEGUARDING AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES PROCEDURES As a registered childminder, I have an obligation to report any suspicious incidents or accidents to the relevant authorities following the Local Safeguarding Children Board procedures. I keep up to date with child protection issues and relevant legislation by taking regular training courses and by reading relevant publications. This helps me be aware of the signs of abuse or neglect and what to do if I have a concern. I have a copy of and am familiar with the Local Safeguarding Children Board procedures. If I am concerned about a child’s welfare, I will contact the local authority, the NSPCC, NCMA or other relevant support services for advice, confidentially will be assured only when it is clear that there is no risk of harm to a child. The following numbers will always be to hand Ofsted (08456 404040) NCMA Information Line – for help and support for with all areas of childminding, including allegations of child abuse. 0800 169 4486 NCMA Legal advice line – offers free, professional advice to NCMA members on any legal problem related to their childminding business. (01253 777468) NSPCC child protection helpline – 24-hour helpline for people worried about a child (0808 800 5000) POLICY FOR ALLEGATIONS OF ABUSE AGAINST A CHILDMINDER As a Childminder working alone I may be vulnerable to allegations of abuse being made against me or another adult in my home. I will take precautions to protect myself from this happening by: * Ensuring all household members aged 16 and over are CRB cleared. * Ensuring all visitors to the house do not have unsupervised access to the children under any circumstances. * Ensuring, where possible, that no workmen/women are in the house during minded hours, unless it is to repair an emergency service or for health and safety reasons. Documenting every accident and incident that occurs whilst children are in my care, informing parents of such events and requesting them to sign my records. * Noting any noticeable marks on the children when they arrive and asking parents to inform me of any accidents that have occurred whilst outside my care. * Ensuring the children are within sight and/or hearing at all times according to the child’s age & stage of ability. * Keeping accurate records on each child. * However, if an allegation is made I will then follow the procedure detailed below in order to gain support and professional advice: Contact : The Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) immediately to discuss the nature of the allegation and the appropriate action to be taken. 01274 434343 * Ofsted to advise them of the allegation 0300 123 1231 I will write a detailed record of all related incidents, including what was said and by whom, with times and dates. After seeking advice/approval from the LADO I will ask witnesses (if there were any) to also write a statement detailing the incident they witnessed and giving their contact details in case it needs to be followed up by the authorities. Task 3 Confidentiality and data protection are vital when running a home based childcare service. Write an explanation of the importance of both. * Confidentiality-privacy, discretion keeping information secret. * Data Protection Act (1998)- This is designed to prevent confidential and personal information being passed on without a person’s consent. This now includes not just information stored on computers but also on paper and screen, including photographs. It is paramount for me as a childminder to safe guard the children in my care from any form of vulnerability, in order to achieve this I must be highly vigilant in my approach, I should never discuss issues of children with different parents. * Password protect my computers * Have a secure locked cupboard where I can keep personal information about the children in my care. The ultimate manner in which to run a successful business is to be professional at all times, this is a key focus as this can not only endanger the children but can also give out the wrong impression to parents. In addition to having confidentiality this is expected on both sides, as there will be information I will be sharing with parents i. e. contract details, fees, contact details, my experience etc. This will be a mandatory requirement on both sides, although my primary goal is to keep the children safe and healthy by implementing the good practices that the NCMA recommend, which is to have a lockable separate business filling system that cannot be accessed by the rest of my family or other visitors to my setting.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Question 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Question 1 - Essay Example This was also the position of Montesquieu,2 who was concerned with the preservation of political liberty. Theoretically, each branch has unique and particular functions that are suitable to either. The constitution provides the powers of the legislature, which is generally to make laws and to legislate. The executive has the authority to made decisions on administration and enforcing laws, and the judiciary is mandated with interpreting laws and punishing those who break them. The goal of the Constitution is to prevent tyranny by dispersing power so that no one body has a monopoly. An absolute separation of these powers with none overlapping with the other is not practical and would put the government at a standstill. The doctrine does not demand absolute or rigid separation as it is not possible. The Federal Constitution offers a relaxed version of the separation of powers. These roles actually overlap and one power finds itself doing the work of the other in the process of doing its duties. They also cat as checks and balances for each other. For example, the power to make laws belong to the parliament and courts has the interpretative role of the same laws. Courts also checks on the executive by reviewing their decisions and striking them on grounds of judicial review. The executive also interferes with the judiciary as it appoints judges in the judiciary and is clothed with the powers of prerogative pardon. This undermines courts executive powers to prevent interference with their proceedings and to secure enforcement of their decisions. Further, the Senate has a role in appointments and treaties checks on the President. The Congress also has the authority to prevent fraud and abuse of author ity in the other two branches. Therefore, separation of powers is only a theoretical rather than a practical doctrine. From this, it is quite

Discussion feedback Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion feedback - Assignment Example Instead of wasting a million dollar deal it’s far more ethical and better than to take more time whether it costs some minute amount of money in the projects. I would have told the presidents that the inflammable polymer is still not produced and we need more resources and time. I will also explain the president in the report that the people and management are working hard to get the required material and there is no lack in performance so far. If I were in the place of Veronica, I would have talked to George individually and told him that he was not the only one responsible for all the mess that happened and now they should agree on the terms and start working on the project again. I would have given a redesigned plan and talked to different sponsors especially the local university partners in order to give us another chance. After that I would have urged George to come and call another meeting in which hall the plans will be set for the future. There is no point in leaving the project. Problems come in every project. I would have told Gail that there is a need to slash out the budgets more apart from the paper less work environments and teleconferencing because these things are really minute and will not affect the savings of the organization optimally. I would have suggested her that there should be some costing depletion in the office equipments and any other things which she can sort out in order to save the money of the company. I would have told Gail that everyone has to play a role in this crisis situation to survive. Gink’s actions are clearly against the set standard of ethics and if I would have been in the place of Linda, I would have talked to the upper management in order to investigate the matter by controlling my emotions in order to be professional. The matter seems to be marketing leak rather than a deliberate attempt but I would have asked the managers to clarify their position

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Analysis of Strategic Factors for Microsoft Corporation Research Paper

Analysis of Strategic Factors for Microsoft Corporation - Research Paper Example Political/legal forces: Microsoft Corporation runs the risk that its business may be affected by changes in the political landscape of the U.K. However, the political climate of the UK is quite business friendly and this is really not a problem. Moreover, new legislation on tax may come into force. This may have a direct impact on Microsoft Corporation. Value added tax recently witnessed a decline. This is good news for Microsoft Corporation as it means that more customers can now shop for Software given that they will be paying less tax on consumption. Moreover, there has been a renewed increase in environmental protection. This may lead to new environmental legislation that may have a direct or indirect material adverse impact on the operations of Microsoft Corporation. Economic Forces: The main economic forces that may affect Microsoft Corporation include fluctuations in interest rates, which has been the case in the UK recently. Interest rates have fallen significantly recently inducing consumers to spend more. Higher inflation means that the cost of inputs will be rising. Exchange rate fluctuations indicate that cash flows denominated in foreign currency are unstable. Prices of inputs sourced from abroad will be unstable as well. The Great British Pound has depreciated significantly against major currencies such as the euro and the dollar. On the one hand, this is good news for Microsoft Corporation given that tourists from abroad can spend more on Software in the UK. On the contrary, it is bad news to Microsoft Corporation in that the prices of foreign inputs in terms of Great British Pounds will be higher. Fluctuations in GDP have an impact on consumer spending. Increasing GDP indicates that consumers can spend more while decreasing GDP indicat es that aggregate demand will drop which will reduce consumption of Software. The global recession has also affected a number of industries and Microsoft Corporation may have witnessed a decline in the demand for its products as well as a decline in funding for its projects.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Open Innovation in Managing Innovation in the Service Sectors Essay

Open Innovation in Managing Innovation in the Service Sectors - Essay Example The competitors or the rivals who want to win over the competition and succeed in the market gathers considerable resources creating their own powerhouses and make considerable advancement. However, the scenarios are different now and newcomers face enough competition for entering the market. Thus, they often do not conduct enough research and commits a mistake in adopting new ideas. Open innovation is an opportunity to them in which the companies can commercialize both their innovations as well as their own ideas from other firms and from within their own firms to the market using channels that provide pathways out of their current business. This report focuses on the use of open innovation in the services sector. The significance of open innovation in service sector Open innovation has taken a significant place in the world of business and competition. Today more than hundreds of companies are seen to have executives who are assigned the title Manager of Open Innovation. There is a lso the dozen of software companies and their intermediaries who provide consultation regarding services or product open innovation. Open Innovation is suggested to provide businesses a more profitable way to innovate as it creates new revenue channels for the company, amplify differentiation in the market, reduces cost and accelerates the time for which the business operates in the market. The innovation in capabilities and its management is industry or sector specific and not specific to any firm. An innovation of intangible product and services are hard to measure. Therefore, it should be remembered that innovation related to the product is quite different from innovation in services. Services are intangible and the customers need to feel them. This makes it mandatory for the organization to place the customers to a most crucial position, access tacit knowledge regarding the requirements and the demands of the customers and finally innovate their services in ways that it caters t o their needs. For instance, innovation in the financial service sector has occupied an important place. Financial innovation is not only restricted to design, distribution, and development of financial services and product but also modifying and altering the role of the financial institution. Financial innovation is done address the issues of tax and regulations. Over the past few years, the banks that are an integral part of the financial sector have done some major innovations such as automated teller machine, credit cards, and internet banking. Internet banking has not only changed the consumer’s behavior but also the way they conduct their business. In case of the business and financial service sector technology has become the key driver of innovation. An important and crucial transition has come in this sector through the integration of data, data analysis and technology (Chesbrough, 2011; Open Innovation Community, 2013; Institute of Directors, 2013). The integration o f technology has brought changes in the innovation platform of the financial service sector such as the shift from the use of paper money to plastic money and mobile wallet.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

TOPIC Option I----- Story Truth and Happening Truth ( Tim Essay

TOPIC Option I----- Story Truth and Happening Truth ( Tim O'Brien----The Things They Carried ) - Essay Example Happening truth would therefore, mean nothing if the story truth is not applied to make the story more believable, readable and even enjoyable. O’Brien explains that there was a big difference between the real truth and the story truth. He talks of seeing a man dying on the trail which was near My Khe, but clarifies that he did not kill the man. Later he says that he made up the whole story. O’Brien says that his main aim was to make the reader feel what he personally felt, thus bringing the argument that; sometimes the story truth tends to be more truer compared to the â€Å"happening truth† which indicates the real happenings in the novel. Part C What makes an individual to believe that these happening truth are accurate is due to the repetition done in the chapter that indicates the accuracy of the incidence. They are the emphasis of the shocking reactions by O’Brien. For instance, the manner in which he describes the eyes of the dead soldier just indic ates the accuracy of the happening truth in the story. He says that, the victim’s one eye was shut and the other had a star shaped hole, where the continuous repetition of the incidence indicates the hard moments that O’Brien was going through in his attempts to visualize the man he had just killed. Another element of happening truth being accurate in this story is where Kiowa is trying to make emphasis to O’Brien that the man he had killed was still meant to die, but he does not give any response (O’Brien). Kiowa in the chapter goes on to make continuous comments on the incidence and that O’Brien should not feel bad that he had killed but he does not give back any comment. This whole incidence displays an accurate true happening and thus, brings the feeling of sympathy to a... O’Brien also displays the story truths, through his major focus being directed on the physical characteristics of the man he had killed other than in the real happening focusing on his feelings rather. This is among the phrases that indicate the elements of a â€Å"story true† where he betrays his efforts to maintain some distance to help in killing the pain. He also narrates his story using a protagonist’s perspective other than using narrator aspect. There is nothing like a narrative commentary on the actions of a protagonist and thus we can only deduce what O’Brien is going through (O’Brien). The ideas and feelings brought about by the story in the novel makes an individual to have the negative perception of a war experience, even though one may be fighting to protect his or her country. Many people depict the idea of joining army as a an opportunity to heroically fight for ones country, but after reading this story, and internalizing what O’Brien felt after killing the Viet soldier, a notion of fear to kill just strikes in an individuals head. This story results to a turn around regarding what people perceive wars to be. By reading this story, a student should learn to be accountable of his or her conduct. If one behaves recklessly now, he should note that, the outcomes will haunt him even after he clears school, like the killing of a soldier haunted O’Brien’s twenty years later. In life also, one should understand that, there are some people who would celebrate on your misfortunes, this is witnessed when Azar is happy that the soldier is dead, but another lesson learnt is that, silence is the best weapon as O’Brien made no comment.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Strategic Management - Essay Example ALDI opted for conservative methods to offer better quality and reduced prices. The strategy is presented to hold numerous benefits in expansion and retention of an increased market share. Furthermore, ALDI utilizes cheaper measures in advertising as compared to Amazon that spends majority of finances in marketing. This places ALDI at a paramount position to expand and increase the profits with increased income and reduced expenditure, especially in marketing (Stubblefield, 2006). The post critics on the shopping trends of consumers and the focus placed on the comparison of Aldi and Amazon. The German Aldi stores stock mostly their products and offer lower cart value at $0.25. The company saves money through failing to accept credit cards. This includes increased purchase of the cheap products to generate revenue. Amazon offers value in products through the online stores. This generates easier measures in shopping to offer the convenient sopping measures. These are the differences in the two stores with the consumers offered cheap expenses in Aldi and the convenient Amazon. These stores may serve as supplements in their positioning since they satisfy consumers in varied manners. The post offers the challenge on the preference of a company based on the strategies that they incorporate in their marketing

Sunday, September 22, 2019

How Islam responds to Relationships Essay Example for Free

How Islam responds to Relationships Essay Introduction Throughout this project, the intention of the information is to answer the question: How does the religion of Islam respond to issues on relationships? All through this Booklet, I have kept in mind to focus on the ideas of Islamic relationships and what this means to a Muslim, in the Islamic definition. In Islam a definition of relationships means marriage, contract, sex, families, children etc. Therefore, if applied to Islam in liaison to the now modern everyday life this would involve issues such as * Men Womens Roles in the family * Beliefs about the ethics of Divorce * Beliefs about sexual Relationships * Religious attitude to the use of contraception These are the subjects I will be talking about and looking over at the Islamic perspective on these topics of concern. To portray the view Islam has over these issues I will be using: * The genuine teachings from the word of our God `Allah` himself, doing this through the Quran. * Referring to important hadiths (lessons) and quotes from the prophet Mohammed (pbuh) * The message given out today by the most knowledgeable top scholars. These should give a clear message of what, the view on these issues used to be like, how they have progressed and possibly altered over the years, the differences on these matters from today in contrast to when the religion began, and how it is today, right now in Muslim houses and nations across the world. Islamic Marriage Ceremonies Marriage (nikah) is a solemn and sacred social contract between bride and groom. This contract is a strong covenant; `Mithaqun Ghalithun` as expressed in Quran 4:21. The marriage contract in Islam is not a sacrament. It is revocable, both parties mutually agree and enter into this contract. Both bride and groom have the liberty to define various terms and conditions of their liking and make them a part of this contract. Mahr The marriage-gift (Mahr) is Gods command. The giving of mahr to the bride by the groom is an essential part of the contract. And give the women (on marriage) their mahr as a (nikah) free gift (Quran 4:4) Mahr is a token commitment of the husbands responsibility and may be paid in cash, property or movable objects to the bride herself. The amount of mahr is not legally specified, however, moderation according to the existing social norm is recommended. The mahr may be paid immediately to the bride at the time of marriage, or deferred to a later date, or a combination of both. The deferred mahr however, falls due in case of death or divorce. One matrimonial party expresses `ijab` willing consent to enter into marriage and the other party expresses `qubul` acceptance of the responsibility in the assembly of marriage ceremony. The contract is written and signed by the bride and the groom and their two respective witnesses. This written marriage contract (`Aqd-Nikah`) is then announced publicly. Sermon The assembly of nikah is addressed with a marriage sermon (khutba-tun-nikah) by the Muslim officiating the marriage. In marriage societies, customarily, a state appointed Muslim judge (Qadi) officiates the nikah ceremony and keeps the record of the marriage contract. However any trust worthy practicing Muslim can conduct the nikah ceremony, as Islam does not advocate priesthood. The documents of marriage contract/certificate are filed with the mosque (masjid) and local government for record. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) made it his tradition (sunnah) to have marriage sermon delivered in the assembly to solemnize the marriage. The sermon invites the bride and the groom, as well as the participating guests in the assembly to a life of piety, mutual love, kindness, and social responsibility. The Khutbah-tun-Nikah begins with the praise of Allah. His help and guidance is sought. The Muslim confession of faith that There is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His servant and messenger is declared. The three Quranic verses (Quran 4:1, 3:102, 33:70-71) and one Prophetic saying (hadith) form the main text of the marriage. This hadith is: By Allah! Among all of you I am the most God-fearing, and among you all, I am the foremost held responsible to save myself from the wrath of Allah, yet my state is that I observe prayer and sleep too. I observe fast and suspend observing them; I marry woman also. And he who turns away from my Sunnah has no relation with me. The Muslim officiating the marriage ceremony concludes the ceremony with prayer (Dua) for bride, groom, their respective families, the local Muslim community, and the Muslim community at large (Ummah) Marriage (nikah) is considered as an act of worship (Ibadah). It is honourable to conduct it in a Mosque keeping the ceremony simple. The marriage ceremony is a social as well as a religious activity. Islam advocates simplicity in ceremonies and celebrations. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) considered simple weddings the best weddings: The best wedding is that upon which the least trouble and expense is bestowed. Primary Requirements 1) Mutual agreement (Ijab-O-Qubul) by the bride and the groom. 2) Two adult and sane witnesses. 3) Mahr (marriage-gift) to be paid by the groom to the bride either immediately (muajjal) or deferred (muakhkhar), or a combination of both. Secondary Requirements 1) Legal guardian (wakeel) representing the bride. 2) Written marriage contract (Aqd-Nikah) signed by the bride and the groom and witnesses by two adult and sane witnesses. 3) Qadi (State appointed Muslim judge) or Mazoon (a responsible person officiating the marriage ceremony) 4) Khutba-tun-Nikah to solemnize the marriage. The Marriage Banquet (Walima) After the consummation of the marriage, the groom holds a banquet called a walima. The relatives, neighbours, and friends are invited in order to make them aware of the marriage. Both rich and poor of the family and community are invited to the marriage feasts. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: The worst of the feasts are those marriage feasts to which the rich are invited and the poor are left out. (Mishkat) It is recommended that Muslims attend marriage ceremonies and marriage feasts upon invitation. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: and he who refuses to accept an invitation to a marriage feast, verily disobeys Allah and His Prophet. (Ahmad Abu Dawood) Roles of Men and Women within an Islamic Family Islam teaches that men and women are equal and that Allah will judge them equally according to the way in which they have lived. Men and women are quite obviously different from each other and each have their own qualities, both of these joined together in the act of marriage is what makes a family work well. Due to the differences and qualities, men and women have different responsibilities to their children and to each other. These responsibilities are in no terms biased against women, the responsibilities laid upon the parents are balanced and equally as important to one another. Men do have the quality of normally being physically and mentally stronger than women, and for this, they are expected to provide his wife(s) with sufficient money to allow her to buy food, take care of the house and look after the children. But this does not mean that the father just has a financial role, not at all, the father is the leader of the home in Islam, it is his responsibility to set the social and emotional nature for the home and family. Mens responsibility in Islam goes far beyond only financial. If the father is emotionally distant, perpetually angry, or closed off, chances are this will reflect throughout the rest of the family. Thus, the role of the father and husband as a tone-setter is a key element in the leadership running of the household. I notice in my own home that when my father is engaged in reading/activities, I will take interest and want to join him. Rather than get upset at me for interrupting him, he will usually try to include me in what he is doing in a way that is playful and educational. This allows me to take an interest in it as well, increasing the bond and emotional connection between us. Islam gives fathers and mothers a great deal of responsibility for raising their children. It was narrated that Abd-Allaah ibn Umar heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say, Each of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. The leader is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. The man is the shepherd of his family and he is responsible for his flock. The woman is the shepherd of her husbands household and is responsible for her flock. The servant is a shepherd of his masters wealth and is responsible for his flock. He said, I heard this from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Women are expected to cook food, clean the house, and take care of the children but the fathers do also have a part in the upbringing of the children and the daily house chores as Mohammed (pbuh) used to help his wife Khadija at the housework as well. Also equal rights are given to both the women and men in Islam; Women do have the right to study if they which, to refuse a marriage, to divorce, to inheritance, to keep their own names, to own property, to take part in politics, whether they are married or not. Women are owed more respect in Islam than men and the pathway to heaven is at your mothers feet. Muslim Beliefs about the Ethics of Divorce Muslim marriage is supported by Islam and is classified as a very good act between a man and women however Muslims are not so ignorant to think that marriages dont fail. They do, it is acknowledged that they do, and since marriage is a legal contract between two people and if the continuation of a marriage brings misery to the couple and their children, it can be undone. In a hadith it states; `If a wife fears cruelty or desertion on her husbands part, there is no blame on the, if they arrange an amicable settlement between themselves; and such settlement is best; even though mens souls are swayed by greed` Also it is said that of all things allowed in Islam but disliked (this is known as `makrooh` e.g. smoking) Divorce is the most hated of them all. A man cannot seek to have a divorce from his wife until it is certain that she is not pregnant, as they may change their mind and try and give it another go if the woman is pregnant. Also as divorce is much hated and is not to be done lightly at all, once divorce has been announced there is a period of three months called `iddah` this is a period of three months to allow for a possible reconciliation of the marriage. If there is no reconciliation then the divorce is permitted to take place. A woman is also allowed to have a divorce, either by an agreement with her husband or because of his treatment of her. Children are regarded as illegitimate if their parents are not married and, according to Shariah law, the father has no legal responsibility. These are the complete conditions of marriage in the contract and the circumstances in which it is permitted, backed up by quotes from the Quran. Requirements; * Marriage implies that both husband and wife are able to live with one another with kindness, respect and cooperation. It is their responsibility to raise a family and it is a covenant binding on both parties. * There are times when marriages fail and no solution can be found except divorce. * The Quran orders men to either live with their wives on good terms or divorce them, but they are not to hold them hostage: When you divorce a woman and they are about to fulfill their Idda, either take them back on equitable terms or set them free, but do not take them back to injure them. Chapter 2, verse 231. * A woman has the right to seek a divorce from her husband if she feels that their marriage is doomed. If you indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by God, there is no blame on either of them if she gives something for her freedom. Chapter 2, verse 229 Muslim Beliefs about Sexual Relationships In Islam, sexuality is considered part of our identity as human beings. In His creation of humankind, God distinguished us from other animals by giving us reason and will such that we can control behaviour that, in other species, is governed solely by instinct. So, although sexual relations ultimately can result in the reproduction and survival of the human race, an instinctual concept, our capacity for self-control allows us to regulate this behaviour. Also, the mere fact that human beings are the only creatures who engage in sexual relations once they are beyond the physical capacity for reproduction, sets us apart from all other species, which engage in sex for the sole purpose of reproduction. Beyond childbearing, sexual relations assume a prominent role in the overall well being of the marriage. In reading hadith, one is impressed with the Prophets ability to discuss all issues including those dealing with human sexuality. The topics range from questions about menstruation to orgasm. He apparently was not embarrassed by such inquiries, but strove to adequately guide and inform the Muslims who asked. Both Quran and hadith allude to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between a wife and husband. Permitted to you on the night of the Fasts is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and you are their garments.(2:187) Adultery Also, Muslims are advised to avoid sexual intercourse during menses so as not to cause discomfort to the woman. It could be said that Islam has a very realistic attitude towards sex and realises that both men and women can be tempted to have a sexual relationship outside of marriage. Sexual activity of any kind is explicitly forbidden and adultery by the husband or the wife is a serious crime. `Nor come night to adultery: for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road to other evils` (surah 17:32) Sex Before Marriage Naturally, attraction between individuals is necessary to initiate a relationship that leads to marriage. But sexual relations can obviously take place between any couple, consenting or not. Because of the far-reaching ramifications of sexual relations outside of marriage, God prohibits Muslims from such behaviour. And because the process that leads to physical attraction and ultimately intimacy is part of human nature, Muslims are advised to behave in a way and avoid circumstances that could potentially result in extra- or pre-marital sex. Modesty in dress and behaviour between women and men figures prominently as a means of exhibiting self-control. Similarly, unmarried couples are admonished against spending time alone in isolated places where they would be more likely to act on their feelings and thus be less inhibited. Homosexuality Human beings are capable of many forms of sexual expression, orientation and identification. The existence of such a variety again is not found in any other species and thus further demonstrates our uniqueness among Gods creations. The potential for behaviour, such as homosexuality, does not mean that its practice is lawful in the eyes of God. Therefore, individuals are expected to control themselves and not act on their desires if such action is contrary to the guidelines of Islam. Homosexuality, like other forms of sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage, is thus prohibited. In any discussion of prohibited acts follows the question of what happens if they nevertheless occur. The Quran and hadith are explicit regarding severe punishment by the State if a person is convicted of such a crime. However, in order for conviction to take place, the individuals must confess or be accused by at least four eyewitnesses of the act of actual intercourse. Obviously, the likelihood of these criteria being met is small which means that most couples who engage in unlawful acts will not be punished by the State. They will then deal with the consequences of their behaviour in this life and will be accountable to God on the Day of Judgement. Only He knows how He ultimately judges. Muslim Beliefs about Contraception Contraception Although Muslims are encouraged to have children, contraception is not prohibited. The method used during the time of the Prophet was `coitus interruptus` (known as azl`) about which several hadith exist. His basic response when asked if such a practice was lawful was that individuals can do as they will, but if God intends for a child to be born, she/he will be born. Some interpreted this to mean that preventing pregnancy is not recommended because childbearing is preferred; yet the act is not specifically prohibited. Also, other hadith stipulate that azl could not be practiced without the wifes consent as it might interfere with her sexual satisfaction or desire to bear children. The Quran does not make any explicit statements about the morality of contraception, but contains statements encouraging procreation. Various interpretations have been set forth over time, and at the time of this writing, discussions on the web can be found easily that take various positions. Early Muslim literature discusses various contraceptive methods, and a study sponsored by the Egyptian government concluded that not only was azl (coitus interruptus) acceptable from a moral standpoint, but any similar method that did not produce sterility was also acceptable. It is permissible to use condoms so long as this does not cause any harm and so long as both husband and wife consent to their use, because this is similar to azl (coitus interruptus or withdrawal). But it reduces the sensation of pleasure, which is the right of both partners, and reduces the chance of conception, which is also the right of both partners. Neither one of them is allowed to deprive the other of these rights. And Allaah is the course of strength., Sex and Sexuality in Islam Condoms (2005) [4] By analogy, the methods that exist today as contraceptives are lawful for Muslims to use at their discretion. Basically, it is our position that any method that does not involve pregnancy termination is permissible. Imam al-Ghazzali lists a number of legitimate reasons for practicing contraception, including; * Financial difficulty * Threat to mothers health * Chance of child being born with mental or physical deformities * Emotional or psychological hardship * Already having many children * Preservation of beauty and health. It should be clear from this discussion, that since sexual relations should be confined to marriage, contraception is so limited. It is not considered a means of easing the difficulties associated with sexual relations outside of marriage and should most certainly not be used in this way at all. Conclusion Overall, all in all in my total truthful opinion, I do believe that Islam the true words from Allah does promote marriage among society, does accept that marriages do fail and permits divorce and the use of contraception. I accept that marriage breakages can happen and that they cannot be forbidden as the continuous misery of two people is worse than the split of their marriage so it should be permitted. However I do think that in todays modern society people are getting married with the thought that they can just divorce if it goes wrong but I believe this is truly wrong! People should seriously contemplate whether or not the time is right for them to get married before they just go into it. Also despite being Muslim myself I feel that the permittance of a man having more than one wife is wrong and unfair on the women themselves, because no matter how fair the man wants to be, hell never be able to treat all them with the same fairness. Also I dont feel that a man is able to truly love more than one woman at the same time, so having more than one fair would make one think that the man doesnt actually love any of his wives but keeps them for pleasurably reasons only. I also have to disagree with a certain Shariah law stating that `Children are regarded as illegitimate if their parents are not married and, according to Shariah law, the father has no legal responsibility` I believe this to be unjust as women cannot become pregnant by herself; the man in full knowledge of what he was doing had sex with her, giving him responsibility for any offspring created from it. Also men may very well use this law as a means of taking advantage of women as they will not be held responsible for any children created as a result of it. Apart from those, Islam has a very modern and fair way of looking at relationships, and apart from those mentioned I dont believe that women are treated unfairly in anyway at all. Bibliography The holy quran the companions of the prophet book2 al-nawawis 40 hadiths Religion equality booklet

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Economics Commentary Essay Example for Free

Economics Commentary Essay The article I have chosen to base my commentary on is SpiceJet buys 30 Q400 aircraft from the times of India (website) and the article was published on 30th of august, 2011. As the title suggests the article discusses about the recent acquisition made by SpiceJet of 30 Q400 aircrafts from Bombardier in order to reach out to more of the tier 2 and tier 3 cities in India, where there is a potential demand which has not been yet met entirely. These cities include Aurangabad, Bhopal, Indore, Mangalore, Rajahmundry, Tirupati and Vijayawada also SpiceJet will start operating direct flights to cities that is not easily available such as; from Hyderabad to Goa and Madurai, Nagpur to Pune and Bangalore to Vizag. This plan to improve air connectivity by SpiceJet has given a lot of satisfaction to many people as their travel has been made much more easier for many citizens of India. Also this the first time that any airline in India has bought these new changes and it allows the company to have monopoly, when concerning these particular routes. Through these changes SpiceJet will be able to increase their customer base and reach out to a more niche market that had been previously neglected by them. This improvement in their route and by providing more aircrafts SpiceJet will enable them to increase their supply thus resulting in their prices to decrease (as can be seen on diagram 1). Moreover the Q400 aircrafts are comparatively much more fuel efficient which not only decreases their cost and hence allows them to offer affordable journey to the common people but also improves their public image because it promotes them as being environmental friendly and hence increase their demand thus bringing about an increase in the equilibrium quantity and price as well (as can be seen on diagram 2). Additionally it makes sure that SpiceJet would be less prone to criticism from NGOs or other pressure groups. Q400 is considered to be the best short-haul plane and comparatively is more comfortable than other planes like it. This will increase the demand of this series of aircraft and most probably more of airlines companies would like to buy flights from bombardier these and hence the price would be increased (as can be seen by figure 3). In addition to this The Q400 aircraft due to its comfort would also benefit SpiceJet as more passengers would like to travel through it compared to other airlines thus causing the demand curve to shift upwards and thus allowing the prices to increase even further (as can be seen by figure 4). The Q400 aircraft are not only going to benefit SpiceJet but also millions of people and India as a whole since this would cause a drastic improvement in communications. Also it will set a trend for other airlines to also offer more routes and hence force the prices to go even lower as the competition will increase and the demand would become comparatively elastic (as can be seen by diagram 5).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Article Critique †‘You Have Someone To Trust (2012)

Article Critique – ‘You Have Someone To Trust (2012) Jessica Bowstead Context and Policy Qualitative Research Article Critique – ‘You Have Someone To Trust’ (2012). Jessica Bowstead M2067675 Word Count-1650 Mortimer, J North, K Stead J. (2012). You Have Someone To Trust. Outstanding safeguarding practise in primary schools. Unknown (Unknown), pg1-74. The purpose of this academic piece is to critically evaluate the article ‘You Have Someone to Trust’, it will begin with examining the literature and will discuss data analysis and findings and then will conclude by synthesising evidence as to whether it is a valued piece of work. The article of choice is qualitative. Qualitative research is a term used for research strategies that are aimed at how human beings understand, experience, interpret and produce the social world (Hammersley, 2013). The main strength of qualitative research is it generates an opportunity for great depth and information on the social process (Griffin, 2007). Quantitative data, on the other hand focus’s on counting and classifying features and constructing statistics (Mangell, 2013). Mortimer utilizes the method of ethnography in her research, this largely relies on observation and interviews as an essential aspect of its methods, the researcher endeavours to become part of the research, t aking note of everything they see and hear (Saks and Allsop, 2007). Validity, reliability, and objectivity are criteria used to evaluate the quality of research. As an explanatory method, the content of qualitative research analysis differs from quantitative data, from its assumptions, research purposes, and inference processes, therefore making the criteria unsuitable for qualitative research (Bradley, 1993). Early work conducted by Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggested four measures for evaluating qualitative research: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. For the purpose of this critical review, the author has chosen the McMaster critical appraisal tool Framework (1998, online). Following a full critical evaluation and checklist, it is apparent that Mortimer’s paper is an interesting but a problematic piece of research. You Have Somebody to Trust (2012) was created with the notion that it would specify criteria for practice in relation to safeguarding children. Policy making relies heavily on the academic literature, from the research it is distinguished how severe a problem is, what actions are required and know how implement it into practice (Exblom, 2002). After school and services failed to recognise and understand former legislation, and a series of serious case reviews, a new framework ‘Practical Tips for Schools’ was created in January 2012 (Mortimer et al, 2012). Mortimer’s study helped build the new framework with her research, this was through an evidence-based approach. You have someone to trust was funded by the Children’s Commission, which was established by the Children’s Act 2004 (Mortimer et al, 2004). Due to the nature of the funding, this research could be seen as one sided. It’s the governments duty to ensure practitioners are following safeguarding procedures (GOV.UK [online]) so one might believe that the results may bias to fit their own aims. However, this has not affected the result or completion of the study. It is essential that studies are clear and coherent due to the research being built on previous research (Dawson, Dawson Overfield 2013) allowing the information to be transferred. Here Mortimer clearly discusses the purpose of study in the first section ‘Executive Summary’. It is also explicitly stated in the second section, ‘Object of the Study’ stating â€Å"The research was in order to identify best professional practice in response to child protection and safeguarding concerns in primary schools’ (Mortimer et al, 2012). Although generalizability is disregarded in qualitative studies (Ali Yusof, 2011) it is important the findings from this article are transferable. Although no two schools are the same, the general operation of a school and their approach to safeguarding should be. In qualitative research it is essential to examine the appropriate literature on the issue of the study, this provides the reader with a rational background of the study (Fink Arlene 2005). Mortimer does draw on a significant amount of literature to contextulize her research. In section four, there is a varied quantity of literature on the chosen subject, including ‘Intervening early’ cited by Eason and Gee 2012 and ‘A shared understanding of outstanding practice’ cited by Ofsted Safeguarding Schools (2011) this is predominantly valuable in that it provides evidence of the subject matter. Generally, there is a clear discussion regarding the literature which in turn strengthens her study. Mortimer has chosen to use purposive sampling, she has completed this by intentionally selecting participants who can contribute a deep understanding of the phenomenon that she is studying (Klenk, 2013). The procedure of sample selection was not highlighted in Mortimer’s report, this could increase transferability. Without this a notion of bias may be questioned due to the deficiency of information. To strengthen her report Mortimer could have stated the sex, race, age and background of the participants. Discarding this information the paper cannot be seen as a true representation of the population (Janson, 2010) which will decrease transferability. Although the sampling information is limited, one can clearly summarize that the type of sampling here is a Maximum Variation Sampling. This involves deliberately selected cases with a wide variation on dimensional interests as an effort to understand the context and created transferbility (Polit Beck, 2013). In the executive summary section it states that ‘ the sample of the school, which were visited were specifically selected to ensure a variation in size, geographical location and demographic intake’(Mortimer et al, 2012). Here Mortimer has addressed the appropriate actions and increased her confimability in relation to the school selection. There was no declaration as to whether all participants took part, allowing the reader to assume that all asked contubuted to the study. Overall, the choice of sample selected for the research purposes is suitable as it does seem to offer a generous opportunity for research into the properties of safeguarding in education. Nevertheless, due to the lack of information provided the results lack confimibility and tranferability. Mortimer does not go into any substantial detail about the process of data collection, in section five there is a vague mention of it however, only basic information is provided. It states that semi structured interviews and survey’s had taken place, but again examples are not specified. The reader was not able to critique the question’s appropiability or comment if they were clearly understood. Survey respondents misunderstand questions more often than one might expect, and the collection process mistakes are difficult to discover and correct (Conrad Schober 2005). To improve the validity of the research, Mortimer could of included member checks. Member checks involve sharing all of the findings with the participants, allowing them to question and comment on the authenticity of the work (Creswell, 2007) this would eliminate any misunderstandings. Forwarding that Mortimer could have piloted her study so she was able to recognise any gaps in her proposal method (Sampson , 2004). The researcher has a clear responsibility to ensure that they protect the right and well being of their participants irrespective of the nature of their research, there are many guidelines that reinforce these principles and many aspects are legally enforceable (Eby, 1991). Mortimer does not discuss any ethical issues that she considered, or whether ethical approval was given. Participants who are subject in a research subject must be competent, have full disclosure of the subject field, understand the process and voluntarily participate (Emanuel, Abdoler Stunkel 2006). This is not disclosed in Mortimer study, therefore the reader is required to assume that the correct ethical procedures were adopted. The data analysis of the study was satisfactory. Mortimer provided a clear breakdown of the data that she gathered. However, no coding was present, coding is an important aspect of a study, it allows studies to be repeated and validated, it makes methods transparent (Shenton, 2004). In Mortimer’s case the coding should of been finalized once the survey was completed and in the case of interviews after the data was collected (Bourque, 2004). She included several direct quotes from participants, which increase the credibility in her research. Quotations give an insight and meaning and illustrate the argument (Holloway Wheeler, 2013) facilitating the reader to understand how the findings were presented. However, it ought to be recognized that her findings are clearly presented and concluded. You have someone to trust (2012) can be seen as having an insignificant amount of credibility. Credibility can be defined as ‘The plausibility of one’s study’ (Pitney Parker 2009). This article is a recent document created in 2012, suggesting that the information if current and up to date, furthering that, credible sources have been researched through the paper such as the NSPCC Safeguarding For Children. The investigators, background and qualification are unknown, Patton 1990 believes that the credibility of the researcher is especially important as it is the person who collects the data. It is believed that this is equally as important as the procedure credibility (Alkin, Daillak White, 1979). Beyond that, triangulation is a credible strategy that Mortimer does practice. Individual interviews, focus groups and surveys are used along with supporting data from documents. Other credible strategies include member checks and a prolonged study time (Munkhjargal, 2006). However, these were not applied throughout Mortimers study. Through triangulation of data collection methods, interviewing and data analysis, Mortimer has enhanced the validity of her work. Alongside these methods of data collection Mortimer has kept her focus on the objectives of her study. Mortimer has created transferability in her research through referencing literature collected on similar topics and areas. The research intentions are indeed found as a result of the work. That being stated, the subject field was very brief and a large amount of data could have been supplied to enhance the validity of the article. Without these any reader may believe that she has become too subjective in her decisions to understand her participants, reducing confimability in her work. Nevertheless, one can expect to ensure comparable results in similar settings from this study, making it clear that the researcher was dependable. On a whole it is clear that the research was valuable, ‘Practical Tips For Schools’ was created and the objective of the study achieved. References Akin, M, Daillak, R White, P (1979) Using evaluation: does evaluation make a difference? Beverly Hills: Sage Volume 76. Ali, A Youseff H. (2011). Quality in Qualitative Studies. Issues in Social and Environement Accounting. 5 (1/2), p25-64. Bourque, Linda B. Coding. In The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Eds. Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, and Timothy Futing Liao, v. 1, 132-136. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2004. Bradley, J. (1993). Methodological issues and practices in qualitative research. Library Quarterly, 63 (4), 431-449. Conrad, F Schober, M. (2005). Journal of Official Statistics. Promoting Uniform Question Understanding in Today’s. 21 (2), P215-231 Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, JW. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dawson, M, Dawson, B Overfield, J. (2013). Reading for Your Research Project. In: Unknown Communication Skills for Biosciences. Unknown: Wiley Blackwell. p67. Eby M 1991, Ethical issues in nursing research: the wider picture. Nurse Researcher 3 (1), 5-13 Emanuel, E Abdoler, E Stunkel, L. (2006). How to treat people who Participate in research. Research Ethics. Unknown (6), p7. Fink Arlene (2005). Conducting Research Literture. 2nd Ed. London: SAGE. p46-58. Griffin, C. (2007). The advantages and limitation of qualitative research. Unknown. 11 (3), p127-156. Hammersley, M (2013). What is qualitative research?. London: Bloomsbury. p2. Holloway, I Whealer, s (2013). Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare. 3rd Ed. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing. p325. Jenson, H. (2010). The Logic of Qualitative Survey Research and its Position in the Field of Social Research Methods. Qualitative Social Research. 11 (2), p. Klente, K (2008). Qualitative Research in The Study of Leadership. Bingley: Emerald Group. p11. Letts, L., Wilkins, S., Law, M., Stewart, D., Bosch, J., Westmorland, M.. (2007). Critical Review Form. Available: Last accessed 15th Jan 2015. Lincoln, YS. Guba, EG. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications Mangel, S K (2013). Research Methodology in Behavioural Science. Unknown: PH Learning Privert Limited. p45 Munkhjargal, D. (2006). Data analysis. The Relationship Between Mathematical Discourse and the Curriculum. Unknown (3), p90. Patton, M (1990) Qualitative Education and Research Methods. 2nd Ed Newbury Park: Sage Pitney, W Parker, J (2009). Qualitative Research in Physical Activity and the Health Professions. Canada: Unknown. P63-64. Potit, F Beck, C (2013). Essentials of Nursing Research. 8th Ed. Unknown: Walter Klue Health. p285. Saks, M., and Allsop, J., (2007) Researching Health, Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods. London. Sage Sampson, H. (2005). Qualitative Research. Navigating the waves: the usefulness of piloting in research. 4 (3), p383-402. Shenton, Andrew K. â€Å"The analysis of qualitative data in LIS research projects: A possible approach.† Education for Information 22 (2004): 143-162 Unknown. (2014). GOV.UK. Available: Last accessed 15th Jan 2015. 1

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Potentials and Pitfalls of Interfaith Marriages :: Essays Papers

The Potentials and Pitfalls of Interfaith Marriages As more Americans enter the cultural melting pot and cross ethnic and social barriers, the rate of interfaith marriages has increased, not because persons are less committed to their faith traditions, but because there is a new reality in which old barriers are breaking down. In the western hemisphere the issue of interfaith marriage is widely debated among all religious traditions. Many conservative denominations believe that, "A believer marrying or intending to marry an unbeliever is clearly going against the expressed commandment of God" (J.J. Lim) . Other religious denominations view intermarriages as, "The unity within diversity that adds a richness and beauty to marriage and to life" (Rev. Tom Chulak) . Regardless of one's religious denomination, a person's religion comprises the framework of meaning and the source of his or her values. When two people marry they bring with them their strengths and weaknesses, hopes and fears, and their religious dimension that plays a signifi cant role in their relationship, decisions and responses to each other. For this reason, many issues and challenges arise within interfaith marriages that require accommodations by each person including how the couple will deal with their religious difference, what religion they will teach to their children, and how their respective religious communities will respond to interfaith marriages. No two couples manage the adjustments that need to be made within an interfaith marriage in the same way. This is because there is no standard or typical Christian, Hindu, Buddhist or Muslim. Their knowledge, commitment, practice and attachment to the respective religious traditions, and their knowledge of, attitude and affinity toward the religious tradition of their spouses are so different that no two couples have the same experience. There are a number of factors that influence the rate of persons marrying outside of their religion, which are pertinent to all denominations and religions. The number of eligible marriage partners who are of the same faith group is limited and therefore it is more likely for individuals to look outside of their faith group for a spouse. Increasing enrollment at colleges and universities puts more young people of different faiths away from home and into social contact. Movement from ethnic neighborhoods into the more heterogeneous suburbs lowers barriers to interfaith dating. As secular influences gain strength and church attendance rates fall, young people are being increasingly raised in homes that have little religious commitment, which has been shown to increase the rate of interfaith marriages.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Parachutes Investigation :: Papers

Parachutes Investigation Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out how one chosen variable can affect the rate of descent of a parachute. There are many different factors that can be taken into consideration and varied to see what has the best effects on the rate of descent. The options where: a) The size of the canopy, b) The weight pulling on the parachute, c) The length of the chords, d) The shape of the canopy Also the forces acting on the parachute had to be taken into consideration and appreciated for how they could be influenced or used to aid the rate of descent. The forces came in the form of air resistance and gravity. Procedure I chose to see what the effects of the weight the parachute had to support would have on the rate of its descent. My original prediction after some general thinking was that the heavier the parachute was, the faster the parachute would descend. I believe this to be totally true as it is a logical thought process; a feather falls slower than a hammer indicating heavier objects fall quicker than lighter objects. Also the aerodynamics matters, if a surface area of a side of a brick is cut out on a piece of paper and dropped at the same time as the brick the brick will hit the ground before the paper. This is because heavier objects fall to the ground quicker than lighter ones. The next question is why is this important? It matters because if something is falling to fast or slow then other variables can be changed to counter act this, e.g. the size of the canopy or the aerodynamics of the weight. The object that needs to be controlled is air resistance; this is made higher or lower by parts of the parachute. The more air resistance created by the canopy then the slower the parachute will fall. What also matters is how the weight is distributed from the parachute. Parachutes Investigation :: Papers Parachutes Investigation Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out how one chosen variable can affect the rate of descent of a parachute. There are many different factors that can be taken into consideration and varied to see what has the best effects on the rate of descent. The options where: a) The size of the canopy, b) The weight pulling on the parachute, c) The length of the chords, d) The shape of the canopy Also the forces acting on the parachute had to be taken into consideration and appreciated for how they could be influenced or used to aid the rate of descent. The forces came in the form of air resistance and gravity. Procedure I chose to see what the effects of the weight the parachute had to support would have on the rate of its descent. My original prediction after some general thinking was that the heavier the parachute was, the faster the parachute would descend. I believe this to be totally true as it is a logical thought process; a feather falls slower than a hammer indicating heavier objects fall quicker than lighter objects. Also the aerodynamics matters, if a surface area of a side of a brick is cut out on a piece of paper and dropped at the same time as the brick the brick will hit the ground before the paper. This is because heavier objects fall to the ground quicker than lighter ones. The next question is why is this important? It matters because if something is falling to fast or slow then other variables can be changed to counter act this, e.g. the size of the canopy or the aerodynamics of the weight. The object that needs to be controlled is air resistance; this is made higher or lower by parts of the parachute. The more air resistance created by the canopy then the slower the parachute will fall. What also matters is how the weight is distributed from the parachute.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Parent-Child Relationships Essay

What is communication? How does communicating relate to parenting? Communication is any sharing between two or more people. Communication is related to parenting because its important role of positive parenting and it helps guide as well as understand their child more. How can financial issues affect parenting? Financial issues can affect parenting because most families with this problem tend to spend more time working less time with their love ones. this can cause depression and stress which can create a negative vibe round thir family. How does negative communication differ from positive communication? Positive communication differs from negative communication in a way were positive communication, its just you and your child talking no interrupion. Both people talk and listen to get a understanding of each other so that a solution can be made for the problem. How can divorce affect children? Divorce can affect children in may ways such as temper tantrums, difficulty sleeping, guilt, and emotions. Its many ways divorce can affect children but in different ways and age group in life. What are three tips that parents can use to improve communication with their children? keep in mind the child point of view and age when talking to them. Let the child know that you are only looking for their best interests Be respectful and don’t lose your temper when stress out. Critical Thinking Questions Why is it important that parents talk to their children about social issues such as divorce, finances, and unemployment? How can parents talk about difficult topics? Its important to discuss social issues to children because its a point in life where they will face. Divorce is an important to disuss to a child because they need to understand how life really work. they need to know that other kids may not have both parents at home, how it could be step perents. Which all fall into the divorce where i feel should be the top thing because not having both parents in the house could have big effect on the child. When teenagers become parents, what are some of the challenges they face? When teenagers become parents some challenges they will face are finances, health, education and possable single parenting. What are at least three techniques that parents can use when they are communicating with a child about a mistake or misbehavior? keep in mind the child point of view and age when talking to them. Let the child know that you are only looking for their best interests Be respectful and don’t lose your temper when stress out.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Lack of Motivation/ work ethic in American youth

Every one is faced with the challenge of living his life amidst the challenges that it presents to the individual. The individual must determine the way he must live his life, the way he is supposed to live his life, and how to behave or react to the situations that life presents to him. In a way, all individual carries a goal in his life in order for him to get what he wants and what he deserves. Through these situations, one may feel overwhelmed and incapable of making the right choices at the right time. there are also several times in which a person will experience failure and be wrong about the decisions in his life. To understand the cause of failure, the emotions that contributes and results to failure, entails a sense of lack of interest for the individual to pursue his dreams or aspirations in life. All these things are a contributing factor to the development of motivation in the individual. Or the absence of which defines the lack of motivation. The paper will explore the concept of motivation. In doing so, the discussion regarding how motivation is developed and the reasons for the lack of it will be evaluated. Specifically, the paper will examine why American youths lacks motivation and work ethic despite the opportunities presented to them in a first-world country like the United States. To begin, let us define the concept of motivation. Motivation is defined as a noun that gives a person a reason to act (Encarta, 2006). It can also be defined as the desire of an individual to accomplish a goal or participate in any activity that promotes his goals and aspirations in life.   Motivation is the driving force behind the actions and behaviors of an organism. It is the internal state or condition that gives direction or desire to drive the person towards a goal-oriented behavior. Motivation should also be understood as based on emotions. It is the search for positive emotional experiences. A person motivated tries not to worry about the challenges or the negative ideas when facing challenges. Motivation is essential to be part of one person’s growth and life because simply, it involves the person’s performance in all learned responses to the challenges. One good theoretical definition of motivation is used by Abraham Maslow in his developed concept, the hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy of needs explains how personality influences different fields of and within the individual. Maslow uses the hierarchy to reflect the realities of personal experiences. Maslow as a psychology theoretician is classified in one of the school of though in psychology which is the humanist approach. In the particular view, their approach is not based on mechanical forces, reinforcements or stimuli, unconscious instinctual impulses or how other psychology school of thought perceives it. Humanist believes that the individual’s potentials drive him to his success. Maslow attributed that the fullness of one’s potentials is contributed by a mentality of a fully functioning person and a person who has a healthy personality. Maslow attributed these characteristics to a self-actualized person. The contribution of Maslow in defining the character of an individual is essential for us in understanding why US teenagers lack motivation nowadays and lacks work ethics. In Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs, the basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing are instinctive needs. The basic needs are the first level in Maslow’s five levels of basic needs. The needs mentioned above the basic needs are understanding, esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. It must be noted that the fist level of needs must be fulfilled first before the rest and above needs are fulfilled. The need mentioned by Maslow that is important in the development of one’s self is first the physiological needs. The physiological needs are biological needs that serve as the basic needs like oxygen, food and water. Second, the safety needs. The safety needs, after the physiological needs are satisfied, the need for security alarms the person. Take for instance an adult responding to an emergency or a child’s moments of insecurity. Third level is the need for love, affection and belongingness. After the two latter needs are satisfied, Maslow theorized that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. That is why this need is realized through socialization processes of the individual. The fourth level is the need for esteem. Both self-esteem and esteem from other persons becomes dominant at one point. Human needs stable self-respect and respect from other people. Without this realization, people tend to feel weak, helpless and worthless. After four below levels are satisfied, the top level emerges and becomes dominant. This is the need for self-actualization. This level is what Maslow attributed as the person in which he must be and was born to be. The self-actualization needs enable the person to feel restless, on the edge or even confused in his pursuit for his right state of mind. Maslow believes that this level makes an individual realize what he must be doing for his personal fulfillment. He also believes that the society is placing hindrances for a person to fulfill his self-actualization needs. Education is one of the hindrances that Maslow mentioned. This had caused the call for action of educators to respond to this need and focus on the potentials of the individual. After providing the basic theoretical concept for us to understand the lack of motivation and work ethics among teenagers, the concrete studies and reasons for such will be discussed and explored. Many studies had already contributed in the society’s understanding of how humans are motivated and the reasons for the lack of it. We mentioned earlier the theory conceptualized by Maslow, the Hierarchy of Needs, because the strong point in using this theory is the comprehension that the higher level of needs of the individual includes affiliation, recognition of talents and potentials, and competence. Motivation is a concept in life that that originated in the Latin word â€Å"motus† which means to move. Being motivated is an indication of a person’s strong will to overcome obstacles and challenges. It initiates action for the individual to move towards a direction beneficial for him. Motivation is regarded as a process of integrating and interaction between internal and external factors of an individual. LACK OF MOTIVATION In understanding the lack of motivation among teenagers in the United States, we must first give importance to the role of society and its means that reflects the lack of motivation among teens. Today, media and entertainment influence greatly on teenagers. Each of them is influenced through music, movies and others. These factors one way or another, without us knowing, is a contributing factor to one’s lack of motivation, the same way that these influences become a motivating factor in the formation of goals of teenagers. Some of them want to become rich and popular. Some wants to like the personalities that they admire. But in further discussion of the lack of motivation and work ethics among teenagers, several reasons can be attributed to such in a much larger perspective and theoretical framework. According to Stipek (1988), several reasons for the lack of motivation are brought by internal and external factors. Teenagers do not define goals that characterize their personal success. These goals initiate the motivation, the drive for the person to do something to fulfill them. Or even if they have goals, the goals and activities in which it is executed is the wrong method in fulfilling it. The goals may also be non-achievable goals. Another attributed reason for the lack of motivation is the negative feelings and emotions one person situates his or herself at. Teenagers also have the tendency to set goals for future endeavors, and if they fail, they lose the drive to try to achieve it once more. That is why goals must be set within bounds of achieving them in time. The prolong satisfaction of achieving goals in the distant future affects teenagers lack of motivation. The goals set by teenagers also are not reflected in their present-day activities. The activities they include themselves may be not related to the goals they have set. Stipek (1988) also mentioned that the important goals teenagers must achieve should not conflict their present-day activities. Motivation also comes with reinforcements and rewards. Lack of motivation can also be attributed to low incentives that teenagers get disappointed at. Another significant reason why teenagers lack motivation is the interference and influence of personal problems in their family, society and the activities they participate in. To address to this problem, parents and educators must share the same responsibility to increase motivation among teenagers to achieve success and realize their potentials. As we have discussed the reasons for teenagers’ lack of motivation, it is now the goal of educators, parents and the society in greater scale to act on this phenomenon. Parents and educators must encourage teenagers to become authentic, to listen to themselves and the inner voices that govern their emotions. Parents and educators must teach the teenagers to be different because the reality is, everybody is different. The media and the different personalities and figures in the society today greatly influences teens today and this brings several challenges for the development of one’s individuality. Teenagers want to be who ever they admire and see on television, which brought such problems as the reason why teenagers want to be skinny, undergo surgical procedures to look like their idols or be popular. They must teach teenagers to transcend the limitations and perception of cultural differences. They must also teach the importance of following their hearts desire, as clichà © as it may sound. Their calling, fate or destiny will be able to motivate them in achieving their goals. To this goal parents and educators must encourage teenagers to discover their potentials and develop the skills they inherently have. Also important is to instill in teenagers mind that life is worth to be experienced thus the need to do necessary actions to live life to the fullest and to their potentials. Parents and educators must also accept the teenagers for their own personality and must not give reasons for them to doubt what they want is not what they are supposed to do. Encouragement and reinforcements is very essential in overcoming the challenge with lack of motivation. from the real attitudes and perception of the teenagers, potentials are discovered and further developed into something the teenager will perceive as essential for him to achieve success and happiness. Also as the responsibility of parents, the basic needs must be satisfied. Included in which is safety, belongingness and esteem need. Parents must secure these needs before the teenager can focus on his personal development and achievement of goals. He will appreciate the things done for him to achieve success in life. As for the role of educators, they must refresh the knowledge and consciousness of teenagers for them to realize their importance in the society. In conjunction with satisfying the need for belongingness, teenagers are encouraged and motivated is they have an idea of their worth and importance of the role they play in the society. Teenagers must be taught to control the activities in their lives, to get involve in activities that are related to their goals. When an individual has control in their life, it naturally improves the condition of their life in all aspects. This means that teenagers must be taught to be aware how to grace under pressure and practice minimalism. Teenagers must also be encouraged by parent and educators to never give in to failure. They must let them understanding the failures is a natural occurrence that one has to learn and live in. parents and educators must also encourage teenagers to transcend into personal problems for their own benefits. With the growing alarm rate of divorced parents in the United States, parents must make it a priority to let teenagers understand the situation for them to realize that they are still important amidst the personal problems they encounter. Whether it may occur in the home or in school, the responsibility to overcome lack of motivation must involve the teenager to adhere to the situation and react to it in a positive manner. Although this is not an easy process as we are still govern mostly of our emotions, parents and educators must enforce teenager’s perception of a better life ahead of these problems and negative situations. Lastly, parents and educators must give teenagers the right to choose and present them with viable choices for them fulfill their potentials, goals and aspirations. Reference: Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Mary, Rose. â€Å"Tips on how to overcome lack of motivation while working at home†. EzineArticles. November 1, 2006. December 1, 2006 Huitt, W. (2004). â€Å"Maslow’s hierarchy of needs†. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University. Retrieved December 1, 2006 from, Anonymous. â€Å"Adherance to Youth Guidelines.† 1. Maslow, A. H. â€Å"A Theory of Human Motivation.† Classics in the History of Psychology Christopher D. Green, 1943. Messina, J. J., and Messina, C. M. . â€Å"Testing Motivation in Recovery.† 2006. Perera, Karl. â€Å"Self-Motivation.† 2005.   

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Value Proposition of Gym/Spa Business

A business endeavor like a gym and spa is a rewarding one, due to the fact that you are not only doing business but you are doing people a favor as well. What is nice about a proposed gym/spa business that it complements each other, a spa will always complement to a spa, because it provides the clients a chance to relax after a rigorous workout. Aside from that, the owner of such business can have lots of opportunities the bodybuilding and fitness industry has its complementary products as well. Among these are food supplements that people place a premium nowadays. This can fuel the revenues of the business as well. On the other hand, the spa will draw ladies and metrosexuals who are put a premium on wellness services. The spa will complement the gym and it is evident among prominent gyms with their own spa services. Pricing and Advertising The gym/spa will get athletes and sports celebrities as their endorsers. This will enable the gym/spa to draw clients which will be motivated to enroll in the gym/spa. The payment will be on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis. This will give potential clients the option to enroll at the gym/spa based on their income. Market Niche of a Gym/Spa Business A slogan that can be used with this business is â€Å"Health is Wellness, The Rest Would be for The Best!† The gym/spa business will hold a firm position on its market niche because it will draw people from all walks of life that makes this business worthwhile and lucrative.   Mostly the people who are stressed-out from work will draw your attention. It is evident among gyms like Fitness First and Gold’s Gym who have their own spa amenities inside the gym. Another thing is that, you can engage into this business with some of your friends, so as to draw a variety of crowd that will eventually be your regular clients. SWOT Analysis Strengths  § The gym/spa showcases a wide variety of state of the art amenities and equipment that will promote fitness.  § It has other amenities aside from the usual gym/spa that will augment the gym/spa itself. Weaknesses  § The gym/spa will have a hard time enticing blue collar workers because of its massive advertising using celebrities.  § It is a hindrance that there would be a possibility that the gym/spa can only accommodate a certain number of clients inside the vicinity. Opportunities  § The gym/spa will have potential consignments with other business establishments, such as nutritional supplement shops that will augment the advertising of the gym spa.  § The gym/spa can make their service 24 hours a day because there are people’s work shifts vary. Threats  § The gym/spa is deemed to get a demand for the increase in payments if ever client enrolment will be at a low. Nearby gyms like those within the neighborhood will be a petty yet potential com