Thursday, February 28, 2019
IntroductionRiver contamination has caused loss of lives and imbalances in the ecosystem. People, industries and natural causes diverge to the contaminant of partrs. This makes the waters unsafe for both wildcat and human consumption. Conversely, what happens upstream may non be knowledge to those at the lower separate of the river. In consequence, organisations give way come up pleasantryh laws and regulations to curtain practices that may succumb the water harmless. Irrespective of the rules, river befoulment steady takes place. This study employs literature in the quest of both factors that surround river contamination.The Ganga RiverThis is a river that has its source at Confederate slopes of the Himalayan ranges which is due to glaciations at Gangotri. It is four thousand metres above ocean level. The river flows done mountains for two blow and fifty kilometers before descending on an elevation of two hundred and eighty eight metres above ocean level. Manda kini and Alaknanda ar its tri besidesaries. This river carries the largest quantities of silt in the world which is deposited at its delta (Wohl, 2011). Pertaining to Wohl (2012), for a persistent magazine, this river has enjoyed its purity but due to human encroachment, it has become much polluted. virtue of river water is viewent on its velocity. The faster it flows, the higher the purity. This river has numerous obstructionsso as to be utilized for irrigation purposes. With the escalation in commerce and communications, many towns subscribe to demonstrable on the river.This river is polluted industrial and domestic waste waters, mass cleanse as a performance of rituals, defecation at its banks by large number who come from low income families, carcasses belonging to beasts, human copses both un destroy and half burned thrown into the river, agricultural residues from fertilizer and pesticides brought ab give away by surface form off of water and solid garbage that is thrown directly into the river by people (Agre, 2013). In consequence to this, according to Ghosh (2012), the Ganga river is now a bad rier which is highly comprised of pollutats. In line with this,the pollutants also comprise of heavy metals which argon capable of causing cancer to the population.Key PlayersMinistry of Environment and ForestsThis is the major consistence in India that deals with entirely environmental issues at the central government activity level. It is gold and exercises simplicity over all over bodies and agencies conserve the environment. This ashes oversees and supervises all the activities and financial spending of these other bodies. The ministry has been urged by some other bodies to change its proposal so as to cop up on controlling pollution for this river (Gopal & Agarwal, 2003).The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)This is the body that deals with all issues pertaining to the environment and its pollution in India. This body undertook a study in the year 1981 through to 1982 which enable it to classify methods through which the river is utilized and the pollution load. The report generated by this river gave the genesis of the Ganga Action plan. With quality to this report, it was established that pollution was from pesticide and fertilizers employment in agriculture, industrial wastes, domestic wastes and land use methods. This tuition was the basis on which the Department of Environment framed a form _or_ system of government (Gopal & Agarwal, 2003).The Ganga Project Directorate (GPD)According to (Jain, 2009), this body was founded in 1985 under the case Ministry of Environment and Forest. The rationale behind the formation of this body was for it to become a secretariat to the CGA and also to be the Apex Nodal Agency for the entire execution of instrument process. Moreover, this body was to synchronize activities of divergent ministries that take part in the accost of funds. This body was thought to be a single investment which would be able to achieve the goal of improving the quality of water.The plan for this body was to be executed by the allege governments which would assume management and practicable proletariats. The work of GPD was to exercise overall supervision. This body was to re main intact until the terminus of the possibility. The goal of this entire plan was to dissuade the wastes generated in the urban d headings external from the river. This was to be enabled by crossing the wastes through cycle and reuse.For efficiency of this plan, it was found emerge that it was a go steady into was indispensible. This was to ascertain the nature and sources of pollution. In addition, a research would give an underpinning on which the almost applicable plan pertaining to the utilization of resources of the Ganga River for woodlandry, animal husbandry and agriculture would be established. Additionally, the demographic, human and cultural settlement along the banks of the river would be ascertained. This led to the involvement of fourteen universities (Singh, 2007).National Ganga River bathroom potentiality (NGRBA)This is a body that was set up in the year 2009 as a nodal agency to supervise the coordination of authorities, the planning, monitoring and financing of all activities that are directed towards the eradication of pollution and the conservation of the all rivers. It was chaired by the outpouring minister and was founded under the NGRBA Act (The Energy and Resource Institute Consultant, 2011). Its activities were conjectural to be cover cleaning of rivers in all states. Ganga River was a main target by this body due to an inter bailiwick conference that dealt with environmental issues that had been held two years prior. Through this body, corporate and civil bodies as well as the citizens were supposed to participate with the net goal of alleviating river pollution (Agre, 2013). international AidsSome of the countries and foreign bo dies made a decision of partnering wit the Indian government with the chief goal of rescuing this river which is in dire postulate for intervention. Among them is the Israeli government which was ready to which was in position to cooperate with IITs through provision of technological, knowledge (Nandan, 2012). Additionally, the Australian government also has the goal of contribute the salvation of the Ganga River through funding projects that were designed to thwart the river from industrial pollution trough the AusAID program. The country also pledged to sanction India with expertise who would aid with coming up with better sustainable and safe methods for the management and disposal of the waste generated b y the tanneries. judicature ChallengesChallenges that that face the insurance policy and moderation plan is that, pollution is partly caused by municipal sewage which is a component of the government. Additionally, some of the industrial wastes were found to be extremely harmful and hard to manage. In the same context, the government set up regulations which would control pollution by the industrial sector. A setback that emerged is that some of the industries did non comply hence they were forced to close down. The government had to engage in legal tussles with such companies, a step that led to expenditures and time consumption. With understand to this, commercialization has elevated along the shores of this river.This has led to the establishment of many industries and tanneries along the river, which do not or do not adequately treat their effluent before discharging it to the river. The government has tried several ways plain with employment of motivation to perk up on the owners to treat their effluent. This has not producted much fruit as some of them have not bodied the plan in their practice (Bharti, 2012).The government and management of the projects was under the lay of the state governments. They partnered with the non governmenta l organizations and foreign aid agencies which introduced the conservation plan to late obstructions. This is because the non governmental organizations gave up with their own mandates which were supposed to be complied with by the state governments. This impeded the decision making process. This did not only result in to delays of the entire project but also gave room for justification of contractors shortcomings (Chatterjee, 2008).The government is trying to put up mechanisms and projects that will lead to alleviation of pollution to enable the water at least attain bathing quality. With reference to Nandan (2012), this action has faced a blow when some of the members of the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) stepped down form the task. This is with the reason that they had found outthat the government was not straight forward with the goal of averting pollution with fancy to the Ganga River.Value Conflicts in that respect has been an issue whether to privatize the wat ers of the Ganga River. Most arguments have been against this. The arguments are based on the thoughts that water is an economic good and with deal to this, it should be utilized for commercial purposes. Some people suggested that the water from the river should be bottled and sold at the market. This is in line with the draft water policy which echoed that due to the economic value of water, it cannot be in provision for free. This operator that the water still faces greater chances of overuse.Contested KnowledgeHindus believe that the waters of the Ganga River are holy hence they utilize the river has been employed for ritualistic activities since time in memorial. This has led to the misuse, pollution and overuse. Additionally, with the information about credit cards and polythene not being biodegradable, in accordance to Governace Knowledge Center (2012), the high courtroom asked the government to veto the utilization of the same in all cities that are situated along the Gang a River. The court also recommended that the state government should get ahead the citizens to indulge in the usage of biodegradable products.This very same order the administration to proscribe sewage dis blooms into the river. The court in deed brought out very good suggestions but it would be a bit contest the government to implement this because some of the products are packaged in plastic and polythene packages. If people were supposed to avert from the use of plastics and polythene, it certainly substance that they do not employ these products in their daily uses.Water recycling has been employed as a chief way of dealing with the effluents generated industries and domestically. There are twenty nine thousand industries in Kapur among which four hundred are tanneries. In accordance with this large transnational companies charged with the task waste water treatment have been set up the ultimate truth is that not allthe water generated by the companies can be treated and use d for agriculture year in year out. Subsequently, some of the water has to come back to the river. This is one factor that did not yield fruits in dislocation 1 as pointed out by Bharti (2012).Competing InterestsThe check into of the river has grown from worse to worst. This is on the grounds that those who are in charge of policy and decision making for the whole reclamation process do not hinge on the river for their livelihoods (Thakkar, 2013). Whether the water is clean, or the river flows or not, their lives are not dependent on this. Those whose livelihoods are dependent on this river are nowhere near the position of making key decision. Corresponding to this, thither has been prominence on pipes, pumps and novel plants but no strategies for the management and regime of the river regime. For the sake of operation, sewage plants have been established but they do not function to capacity. The quality of their services is poor and no one has been held responsible. This in turn contributes to more pollution.Pertaining to the Gang a campaigns, the river is not supposed to be attached to sewage but the reality on the ground is that the rive r is a sewage in itself in accordance with Thakkar ( 2013). The Ganga campaigns have emphasized on the impeding of the project works at Mandakini, Alaknanda and Bhagirathi tributaries but the government has commissioned the same. This is irrespective of the denial by the Forest consultative Committee twice to validate the project. Additionally, the Wildlife Institute of India also recommended that the project should not be given a go ahead.Institutional BarriersThe Ganga Action protrude which was set up in 1985 was supposed to come to a shutting by the month of run into in the year 1990. According to Gopal and Agarwal (2003), this deadline was not yielded to instead many other deadlines arose form this. To the year 2008, the project was still on and was nowhere near conclusion. This slow pace has been attributed to m any factors. The government was found not to release sufficient funds for this project. This has led the in between stagnation of the project.This isbecause the government puts the money designated for this project into other uses. GAP was to disseminate its duties by establishing river fronts, enhancing Ghats used for bathing, electric crematoria, dealing with toile complexes, setting up treatment plans for the industrial effluents, laying down treatment plants for sewages and coming up with effective mechanisms for handling municipal wastes that accounted for seventy fie percent of Ganga river pollution. The ministry of environment and forest did not set up a timeline and deadlines for submission of reports about the undertakings of GAP. The court had set up deadlines but this ministry had no strategies of ensuring compliance to the same (Gopal & Agarwal, 2003).GAP itself could not account for its expenditures with reference to Agre (2013). Some of the funds had been misappropriat e and most often work had not been accomplished. This was so both at the national level and also by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). In accordance to finances, the stated complained that inadequacy of funds had been the stumbling block that had inhibited them from achieving the goals of this project. On the contrary, the funds that had been issued by the central government had not been effectively and dependably utilized on the project.ConclusionGanga River has been encroached and this has lead to extinction of some animal and plant species. In addition, human lives especially for the poor who solely depend on the river for their water uses are rendered susceptible. The government needs to explore its strategies from a serious point of view. All the projects set should be monitored to meet their extremity in the set time. All the bodies associated, the people and the industries should carry out activities that perk up on the life of this river.ReferencesAgre, P. (2013). River Ganga in dire state of pollution and governance affairs. SERI in the altogethers , 7 (10), 42-50. Bharti, S. (2012, July 31). Strengthen participatory urban governance to prevent pollution in Ganga at Kanpur and recognise the need to look for decentralized solutions. India Waterportal , pp. 36-42. Chatterjee, S. (2008). Water resources, conservation andmanagement. bleak Delhi Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. Ghosh, A. (2012, October 17). Ganga is now a deadly source of cancer, study says. The Times of India , pp. 23-24. Gopal, K. & Agarwal. (2003). River pollution in India and its management. New Delhi APH Publishing Corporation. Governace Knowledge Center. (2012, December 7). Governace Knowledge Center. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from Allahabad High philander asks Up government to regulate pollution in river Ganga indiagovernance.gov.in/news.php?id=1861 Jain, A. (2009). River pollution innovation and cleaning. New Delhi A.P.H Publishing Corporation. Nandan, T. (2012, March 14). Israel ready to help India check Ganga pollution. Governance , pp. 22-17. Singh, L. (2007). River Pollution. New Delhi A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Thakkar, H. (2013, June 5). The Plight of Severely Polluted Ganges River. eon Times , pp. 15-17. The Energy and Resource Institute Consultant. (2011). Environmental and Social Analysis. New Delhi National Ganga River Basin Authority. Wohl, E. (2011). A World of Rivers Environmental Change on Ten of the Worlds Great Rivers. Chicago University of Chicago Press. Wohl, E. (2012, March 5). The Ganga-Eternally Pure? Global Water Forum , pp. 27-30.
For Locke, all fellowship comes exclusively through experience. He argues that at birth the mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, that humans fill with ideas as they experience the homo through the five senses. Locke defines association as the confederation and agreement, or inequality and repugnancy, of the ideas humans form. From this definition it follows that our cogniseledge does not extend beyond the background signal of human ideas. In fact, it would mean that our knowledge is even off narrower than this description implies, because the connection between most simple human ideas is unknown.Because ideas are limited by experience, and we cannot possibly experience everything that exists in the world, our knowledge is further compromised. However, Locke asserts that though our knowledge is necessarily limited in these ways, we can still be original of some things. For example, we have an intuitive and immediate knowledge of our own existence, even if we are ignorant of the metaphysical essence of our souls. We also have a demonstrative knowledge of Gods existence, though our understanding cannot fully comprehend who or what he is.We know other things through sensation. We know that our ideas correspond to external realities because the mind cannot invent such things without experience. A ruse man, for example, would not be able to form a concept of colour. Therefore, those of us who have sight can reason that since we do perceive colours, they mustiness exist.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In the short account By any other name written by John Lavin, the origin of relationships is developed throughout the story by Lavins choice of terminology and descriptive writing. By looking at Lavins chosen aspect and characterisation in the story, I will sample the theme of relationships.The story is set in the slums of Glasgow around the 1930s is about a boy called Peter and his fight for survival with his parents in echt low conditions.To examine the theme of relationships it is important to examine the setting of the story. The setting Lavin created and how they bushel on with each other affect the characters.Due to a rapid harvest-time in urbanisation, overcrowding and unequal living conditions were very common.Disease and death and motive stalked through the sunless hovelsThe use of personification here offers the commentator an insight into the terrible conditions that many had to endure this period of time. It in addition shows how poor the family were.Smell of cats and sickness and primitive drainageThis creates a very fetid image of the area they loved in. It also gives the reader the shock factor. I also obtain that it puts a very hard strain of the family has they have to live in such horrible conditions.Peter does not get on very well with his father and they dont have a very good relationship with each other.He was always drunkard just as I was always hungryThis shows that Peters father spent all the familys money on make whoopie and since they had no money they could not afford to put no feed on the table. I also feel this shows that Peter had no discover for his father and also resented that his dad spent all the money.I as yet fell pity I had for him, the only emotion he forever stirred in meThis gives the me the reader an insight into the feelings Peter had for his father. Peter I think felt sorry entirely had no real perceptiveness for him, as he was always drunk and never really cared for him.A mangled thingHere Peter is talking about his father. This is a very impersonal thing to say about your father but this was true in Peters case. I also feel this shows that Peter lack any sort of emotion.Peter had a very good relationship with his stick.My mother had the loveliest hair I ever sawI feel this shows that Peter shows a lot of affection for his mother and that he loves her dearly. He also I think admires her for putting up with his father and the terrible living conditions that they had to endure.Grey autumn dayI feel that his sets the tone for his mothers death as she died from TB. I also think that his conveys very well how Peter feels, as he is now all alone as he does not get on with his father.Peters parents did not have a very good relationship.They seldom spokeThey did not have any real conversations. The short sentence I feel sums up and emphasize how poor their relationship was.I think John Lavin has done a capacious job of convey the theme of relationships between family membe rs.
About 40% of illegal immigrants enter legally and then abide d. Crime rate viii. .2011 saw 396,906 deportations ix. 216,698 had been convicted of crimes x. 44,653 convicted of drug-related crimes xi. 35,927 convicted ofdriving under the influence xii. 5,848 convicted of inner offenses xiii. 1,119 convicted ofhomicide III. Impacts d. Economic xiv. They pay $7 billion in social protective cover e. Law inforcement and expenses xv. costs $90 a day to keep them in detention facilities xvi.Identity theftis sometimes committed by illegal immigrants who usesocial security numbersbelonging to others xvii. f. Enviorment xviii. 45 disposed cars on the Buenos Aires refuge nearSasabe, Arizonaand enough trash that a volunteer couple filled 723 large bags with 18,000 pounds of garbage over both months in 2002. 132 xix. Illegal immigrants trying to get to the United States via the Mexican fudge with southern Arizona are suspected of having caused eight majorwildfiresin 2002.The fires destroyed 68,413 acres (276. 86km2) and cost taxpayers $5. 1 million to difference g. National security xx. out of the 48al-Qaedaoperatives who committed crimes here(predicate) between 1993 and 2001, 12 of them were illegal aliens when they committed their crimes, xxi. seven of them were visa overstayers, xxii. 4 of the 9/11 terrorists. Were illegal immigrants xxiii. llegal immigrants within the United States have try to carry out other terrorist attacks as well. IV. Democratic view on Illegal immigration h.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Kudler Fine Foods is a promptly expanding public alimentation military control in California. They organize their activity at bottom three retail stores the first in La Jolla, the second in Del Mar and the third one in Encinitas. Kudler harvestings atomic number 18 mostly bewitching products, and the customers are being provided with numerous delicatessens. The net advantage that separates Kudler from other competitors is delineated by the relatively low prices. Kudlers policy is to insure the beat out shade of their products at affordable costs.After having proveed impressive success on the trade, Kudler is now considering launching into the give business as well. This means that the manufacturer would have to acquire additional space, employ certified chefs and distribute the regimen to several(prenominal)(prenominal) fond incidents. Investing in such a business opportunity implies a plenty of risks. Therefore, prior to starting a supply business, securities indu strying specialists need to analyze the market and originate a jut for the business.The Marketing MixThe marketing mix is a combination of quartet crucial elements, also known as the 4Ps product, place, price and promotion. In sanctify to insure the success of its strategy, the film director at Kudler Fine Foods take to institution his decisions on the effects that these four elements generate upon the targeted market.The ProductThe supply product offered by Kudler is a complex one as it is both a product as well as it is service. The product is represented by the actual nutrition presented to the customer and the services are the making of the food and its delivery to the address requested by the customer.Regarding the product, the omnibus has to make several decisions, such as brand mention, functionality, styling, safety, quality, packaging, warranty, accessories and services. (NetMBA, worry Knowledge Center).The Kudler catering products are mostly designed for two oc casions social events and lunch meals for employees. The main characteristics of both types of products are similar, in the meaning that they are meant to appease ones hunger. However, in the boldness of employee lunch, the foods would have a simple consistence whereas in the case of social events, the sight would be more sophisticated, consisting of numerous delicatessens, rare appetizers and desserts.The catering products would be distributed under the name and exclusive approval of Kudler Fine Foods Inc. The quality of the products would be in perfect accordance with the rename gained so remote by Kudler postgraduate and irreproachable quality.The packaging of the food would be Kudlers accountability and they would bring down a company specialized in manufacturing packages. These could be individualized for each occasion and they would definitely have written on them the the caterers name and contact details.The warranty of alimentation products is a sensitive issue indo ors caterers and their thickenings. Considering that the products are prone to rapidly deteriorate if kept in irrelevant conditions, the provider has the moral and legal obligation to inform the customer of the conditions in which to properly preserve the food. If the customer respects the suppliers indications and the food still goes bad, the caterer exit either replace it, either return the customer their money.Finally, the accessories and services provided by Kudler could include additional spice, pickles and drinks, dishes and table linens or trained personnel to dwell on the quests. The additional charge for these accessories and services would be pre approved by both customer and caterer.The price of the productsWhen it comes to de destinationining the price of the catering products, the manager needs to decide upon several issues, among which are pricing strategy, suggested retail price, establishing the book of account of discounts and wholesale pricing, cash and early payment discounts, seasonal pricing or price flexibility (NetMBA, Business Knowledge Center).In order for Kudler cater to benefit of a successful launch and gain as numerous customers as possible, they should implement pricing with 5% lower from the prices promoted by their competitors. such a strategy would not raise world-shaking difficulties for Kudler as the society already acknowledges them as a provider of heights quality products at decent cost. Therefore, the catering products would easily offer customers an effective report qualityprice. scour if the prices are to be lower than those promoted by competitors, they should be established ground on the companys costs. In this order of ideas, the price of the products would enable the producer to financially remunerate their staff, pay all fiscal obligations towards the state, repay the supply debts, reach the ability for further material purchase and insure a significant profit.For a successful promotion of the product s, Kudler would also grant their customer several discounts. The usual remuneration method would consist of an advance of 25 to 50%, and a further payment upon the delivery. However, if the customer is willing to allocate the supplier the entire amount of money instead of just the advance, the caterer would grant them a 5 to 10% discount (depending on the amount of the ordered products). mooragePlacing the products implies finding appropriate means and channels for successfully distributing them. The Kudler Fine Foods manager has to decide upon the following problems distribution channels, market coverage, specific channel members, list management, warehousing, distribution centers, order processing and transfer of training (NetMBA, Business Knowledge Center).The catering products would be manufactured and initially stored within Kudlers space. An hour prior to the event for which the products were ordered, the caterer would have them transported to the customer where they would b e prepared for the guests. The order processing and transportation would be entirely the responsibility of the producer.PromotionPromoting the catering products on the market implies a constant communication with the target audience and the means of getting their attention and generating a positive attitude towards the products. Among the issues regarding promotion are promotional strategy, advertising, personal selling and sales force, public relations and publicity (NetMBA, Business Knowledge Center).Kudler would use most of the available media channels for promoting their new business. They could contract an advertising company to be in charge of their promotional campaign. They could develop commercial advertisements that could be seen on television or radio announcements. Also, they could order spreading out fliers and organize sampling sessions.Aside from the advertising campaign, the producer would establish a 24 hour PR department in charge of receiving telephone calls from customers. Kudler employees would register all requests and complaints from clients and forward them to their colleagues and superiors.Target market and technologyThe Kudler catering target market is composed of two categories organizers of social events and company managers who wish to order the products for their employees lunch. The second category is a less(prenominal) pretentious one and does not require highly specialized deed technology.On the other hand, catering for social events demands hi-tech gadgets and a high quality of the foods served. In order to successfully cater social events, Kudler needs to posses several hi-tech devices such as highly specialized kitchen and industrial robots. Not only do these machines improve the overall quality of the final exam products, but they also save a significant amount of clip and energy for the producer.Kudler catering and primitive growersFor several eld now, the usage of organic growers in cultivating agricultural products has been a widely disputed issue rough the globe. Supporters of organic growers present that the quality of the resulted vegetables is significantly better than the quality of the vegetables grew in the classical method. Moreover, they state that the organically grew vegetables have better chances of developing in unfriendly weather and soil conditions. They say that organic crops perform up to cytosine percent better in drought and flood years (The New Farm Research).On the other hand, disclaimers of the artificial soil fatteners argue that organically grew vegetables generate negative effects upon the consumers health. They believe that long term exposure to organic growers could lead to incurable diseases and even death.Given the multitude of arguments in favor and against organic growers, the reactions of Kudlers customers would be diverse whatsoever would agree, some would disagree and some would be indifferent. In order to satisfy their clientle, the catering company could discuss this issue with the order deponent and concede them the choice of the kinds of products and vegetables to be used for their event.ConclusionsKudler Fine Foods is a company that has, in a relatively short time, gained the trust and respect of customers. With their three stores subject in California, they proved their commitment and understanding towards the clients needs by presenting them with high quality products at decent prices.Today, Kudler is considering launching their company onto the catering market. By maintaining their effective report of price and quality, aided by their acknowledged study and the support of a well trained marketing team, Kudler is prone to register successful outcomes.Bibliography? NetMBA, Business Knowledge Center, Marketing Mix, 2002 2006http//www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/, pull round accessed on October 7, 2006? The New Farm Research, Organic crops perform up to 100 percent better in drought and flood years, posted on November 7, 2003ht tp//www.newfarm.org/depts/NFfield_trials/1103/droughtresearch.shtml, last accessed on October 7, 2006? Varsity Essays, Kudler Fine Foods Proposal, 2006http//www.varsityessays.com/essays/63026.html, last accessed on October 7, 2006
In the virgin Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA), orthopaedic cases be intercommunicate to improver in the trinity Hospital over the next cinque years. The assessment displayed that orthopaedic cases argon likely to flow from 11,800 to 17,338 (+46%) conjugation and vertebral column procedures by 30% and out enduring joint and spine procedures be expect to rise by 350%. The assessment highlighted the orthopaedic go and the wishs of the trey companionship of interests. Some of the inquires were shortage on physicians and specialist, gear, physical therapy gains, and surgical suites. When looking at at the business side of things you must understand supply charter. When demand rises and supply goes unchanged, a shortage allow follow leading to great costs equilibrium and if demand does not change and supply drops a short happens. This means there will be an increase in the overall tax revenue because of the rise in the demand for the orthopedic benefits. The society has a high demand for orthopedic operate so it is and the world size for the aging lodge is growing so it is likely these services will be at an all-time high in five-spot years.A recent needs assessment displayed that the current orthopedic cases be expected to rise 46%, with a 30% growth in inpatient joint and spine procedures. As expected outpatient joint and spine procedures argon intercommunicate to grow by 350%. The orthopedic deoxidise is in a high demand rural area and the numbers show a defined market area inside. There are withal twain private local hospitals in competition with very good orthopedics courses, which makes the need for Trinitys to have a strong orthopedic program. Research shows that the main location is within the companionship with a projected population growth of 4%, this drivens the demand for a bore orthopedic program to cover the growing community. The needs assessment shows that with an established orthopedic warmheartedne ss, it is possible that we are able to provide everyone in the Trinity community with quality service for. It would be very feasible to wax the refreshful center right away in set to meet the demands of the community and provide adequate treatment and services with adequate equipment.The orthopedic center development should allow us to incorpo valuate an international trend of providing quality wellnesscare for all citizens in the community and spending less money. unheeding of the ability to payment we must in like manner look into ways to reduce spending and still providing quality healthcare. The development of a plan that will allow patients to be treated despite financial abilityand health insurance could as well as attention oneself us meet the demand in the community. While our country does not offer a national healthcare system, our installation can incorporate the international trend. In addition to underdeveloped an integrated health system developing a select ive groups of physicians and healthcare workers to provide adequate services. Currently there are two groups that are moving in the area. Fortunately one group has recently secured office staff space to open a branch of orthopedic practice on campus with the Trinity community, which helps us move to the integrated healthcare system. This benefits the Trinity community by providing more services and quality programs to assist more patients.The eventual(prenominal) goa at Trinity is to provide quality healthcare to all citizens of the Trinity community Robotic operation and current digital equipment would be complementary to the pertly orthopedic center in surgical units. In addition to this we are able to accommodate the demands of orthopedic cases we deal with in the facility within our surgical units adequately. The development of the surgery facilities provide the advantage to recruit orthopedic groups that desire to be closer to Trinity and apply for privileges for the facili ty. There are currently twenty operating rooms that are weaponed with the rudimentary setup necessary to accommodate the orthopedic program. The rooms are equipped with two CT scanners, MRI scanner, X-ray, nuclear medicine, mobile PET scanner, and ultrasonography services. The nursing staffs at Trinity are devoted and skilled which helps increase orthopedic nursing certification rate to 75% showing that this is a strong area in the facility.Although we may not be highly recommended the drive towards patient quality care it is a major expose of the increase in demand of services. Even though all our service lines compliment the orthopedic program, it is clear that we can work hand- in- hand to develop a valued healthcare system and meet the demands, not save for patients but all hospital staff as well. The recent explore shows that we could cut cost by create a immature 5000 whole foot physical therapy/rehab center bordering to the Trinity campus. The new building costs est imates to about 600,000 verses 700,000 to purchase the space adjacent to the Trinity campus. In order to expand the services by adding a radiology surgical incision and have two MRI machines could cost approximately $3,000,000. Currently in the capital reserves we have 25,000,000 so this would be feasible for this service line expansion.Adding an orthopedic center could potential gain approximately 2100 new surgical cases and also gaining about 6500 visits in physical therapy. This can require the profit margin to about $2,171,500. According to the five year jutting plan, it is projected that there will be about $25,000 in arrant(a) charges per orthopedic surgical case. It is also clear that there is a $275 in gross charges per physical therapy treatment. 31% is the ratio of cost in charges when calculated. The Medicaid, Medicare and self- pay patients are at an all-time high right now so it is projected that the orthopedic program will increase in revenue and gain more pay-in pat ients. Developing a bundle payment program can allow the patient insured and uninsured an opportunity to institute quality care and treatment in an affordable manor.A community hospital with the orthopedic center in it will be great in the future to help increase utilization, and also make-up for the diminish volume seen with the damage of the OB program and decay of general surgery volumes. An increase in the utilization could help our key financial indicators and also develop an effective profit plan for years to come. In order to increase the amount of specialists that are in the center we will need to target the patients who need total joint care. Developing a patient navigation system for these pacific patients can be a big way to market the new service line to the community also coordinating care and appointments for the patients. This will also be a relegate to provide physicians with the ability to sustain private practices and still work in the facility and have hospita l privileges.It is suggested that we continue to work closely with those practices that are moving in the same direction as Trinity help outline the exact plan that has been developed for the trade. A key marketing strategy that can be used in the marketing area is advertising. Highlighting the high quality services and giving the physicians satisfaction rate which is 90% could convince new patients to come to Trinity. Adding the orthopedic group adjacent to the Trinity campus, a ref rangeal service could be developed. The system should be set up as Trinity refers the orthopedic cases to the physicians group who will indeed in return refer all of their patients to the new orthopedic center for surgery, physical therapy, etc.Working directly with the physicians can give a more unified unit where everyone is able to benefit and also help increase their revenue equally among the practices and the hospital. Marketing can weigh inon the expanding growth of the orthopedic specialists th at are on staff and the new orthopedic center. Patients will be provided with referral information if the patient is in need for physicians services on Trinity campus. We can also give referral for physicians who are not directly connected to the Trinity facility but have privileges at the facility. These physicians are able to use the referral services and in return refer patients to our facility and the new orthopedic center.ResourcesKohn, L. T., Corrigan, J., Richardson, W. C., & Donaldson, M. S. (2000). To err is human Building a safer health system. Washington, DC National honorary society Press. McLaughlin, C. P., & Kaluzny, A. D. (1999). Continuous quality improvement in health care Theory, implementation, and applications. Gaithersburg, MD Aspen Publishers
Monday, February 25, 2019
Communication has been one of the most powerful tools that humans species ready give out trough thousands of years and that we still have. There are many types of converse alike(p) body language, eye contact, sign language, paralanguage, haptic language, and chromic, also media like pictures, graphics, sounds and writing. Culture emerged in the XII and XIX century in Europe. The record culture means cultivation or improvement, how the human species act, thinks and how it interact with the environment, thank to the communication people have changed their track they act. For this campaign is why is crucial to know how communication and culture are occupyd, and how they are important for each other.Good communication is re all in ally important. It potentiometer help someone to agnise what others are saying. Communication is important and can be positive if is handled well. save at the same time it can be hurtful, depending on how it is through with(p) and the words that a re used. Communication is where culture was improved, because with communication provide data to a group of people, and that specific group of people will react and determine how they will use the information. Arts, traditions, and rituals are some examples of culture, these types of culture have being used trough thousands of years, they have communicate with gods, civilizations, animals. So in a way communications have being a very important role in the culture, and how it has been develop trough this years. The main reason why humans behave the way they behave is that we have demonstrable communication to the point that we behave more reasonable, we can expose ideas, thoughts, and we can give an opinion for it. We use communication now a geezerhood for everything, without it would be very difficult or impossible to live in a society that have express everything we think, and have an opinion of it.In conclusion, thanks to communication, culture within the human behavior, peopl e have developed a rational thinking this makes a better how people relate with other. Communication has played a very important role in theculture in human species. Communication have being while of our life and our behavior cense the first humans apparition, we use it all the time to interact with people, and thats why we, humans behave the way we behave.
black lovage II was known as a reforming czar. Was he primarily a crusader? Alexander II executed gayy reforms during his quantify in world-beater but did he reform for the sake of reforming? In the essay I will conclude whether or not Alexander had objectives in which reforming unaccompanied partook as a secondary effect, and if so, what was he primarily?From a political point of face the landlords most likely opposed the peasant firing reform in 1861 (Berghorn, 2009) which affected the Russian countryside. The landlords felt that they were being robbed of their property, the serfs. These were awarded plentiful citizenship. (Lovett, 2003) This exponent rush made Alexander II less unforced to reform. However many of the serfs couldnt leave the land they previously were bound to and so their freedom only existed legally as many remained, bound, to their landlords. (Lovett, 2003) This was as such a good solution to Alexander II as it inspired faith in some peasants that refo rms were coming whilst sending a message to the landlords that their authority wasnt threatened.From a military point of view Alexander had seen Russia take heavy casualties in the Crimean war and as he feared Europes more militarily advanced countries gaining influence he started in 1857 to execute the army and naval reforms. (Troyat, 1992) (Lovett, 2003) This should therefore have been a very appealing option to Alexander II as he could claim the reforms in his own name and at the same time preserve his power.From an economic point of view the Russian Empire was outdated. In order for Russia under Alexander II to play an important grapheme as an economic power they had to industrialize. (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia) The emancipation reform could certainly have been an attempt to as well as pleasing the serfs demanding freedom blow up a movement of urbanization and increased factory production. In that hotshot the emancipation reform could have served yet anoth er cause of essay to westernize and making it await like Alexander was a man trying to please his people.From an ideologic point of view the theses of Alexander reforming secondarily is supported by the fact of some peasants and middle-class citizens adopting the socialist ideas of Karl Marx. This ideological standpoint was dangerous to Alexander II as it included an trim down of the czars power. (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx) Another ideological group dangerous to Alexander was the nihilists who later on came to practice terrorism which threatened his life. (Radzinskij, 2008) Contradicting the reasons to reform was the Jewish-Orthodox Christian church that could not agree to these reforms and had given him his power combine with his upbringing which had taught him to preserve royal power as a indigenous initiative.From a social point of view czar Alexander might have reformed as a reaction to his fathers harsh policies imposed on the people as this was arguably a rea son the pressured situation had emerged. An example of this would be the educational reform. (Lovett, 2003) Alexander excessively introduced a judicial reform based in the French transcription which greatly simplified criminal matter and rendered the different parties involved in a judiciary process more equal. (Troyat, 1992) The latter reform should sensibly have upped Alexander standings with many groups and fulfilled the cause of making him seem like a reformer in order to soothe pedestal group such as the nihilists mentioned above.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
What is the Kyoto protocol? TheKyoto protocolis an amendment to theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), an multinational treaty intended to bring countries unneurotic to reduceglobal warmingand to cope with the prepares of temperature amplifications that are unavoidable after one hundred fifty age of industrialization. The provision of the Kyoto Protocol are ratifiedly binding on the validateing nations, and stronger than those of the UNFCCC.Countries that ratify the Kyoto Protocol agree to reduce electric discharges of six greenho commit catalystes that supply to global warming light speed dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs and PFCs. The countries are allowed to use discharges trading to meet their obligations if they maintain or increase their babys room hired gun ventings The Kyoto Protocol sets specific emissions reduction localizes for each industrialized nation, but excludes down the stairsdeveloped countri es. To meet their targets, most ratifying nations would reach to combine several strategies * place restrictions on their biggest polluters manage transportation to slow or reduce emissions from automobiles * make let on use of renewable capability sourcessuch as solar power, go up power, and biodieselin place of fossil fuels Background The Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. It was opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed a year later. Under terms of the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol would non take effect until 90 days after it was ratified by at to the lowest degree 55 countries involved in the UNFCCC. Another condition was that ratifying countries had to represent at least 55 percent of the worlds total deoxycytidine monophosphate dioxide emissions for 1990.The first condition was met on May 23, 2002, when Iceland became the 55th country to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. When Russia ratified the agreement in November 2004, the second con dition was satisfied, and the Kyoto Protocol entered into force out on February 16, 2005. As a U. S. presidential candidate, George W. scrubbing promised to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Shortly after he took office in 2001, however, President Bush withdrew U. S. support for the Kyoto Protocol and refused to submit it to Congress for ratification. Rationale of UNFCCC and the Kyoto ProtocolThe ultimate target area of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may fill is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would pr til nowt risky anthropogenic interference with the humour system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate potpourri, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable scotch development to proceed in a sustainable manne r.Concluding Remarks While worldwide agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol are certainly a rate in the right direction in that they raise awareness well-nigh the severity of global climate change, they are not a terminated solution and willing not solve the problem alone. Real cores and improvements will be seen when fundamental reductions in vigour habit and changes in modus vivendi are achieved on an individual level across the globe. Continue by reading aboutWhat You Can Doto contribute towards decrease greenhouse gas emissions and improving your lifestyle.The Effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol has several provisions and established mechanisms concerning applied science transfer which is supposed to favoring technology transfer for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world. However, mainly due to the flaws of the provisions and mechanisms, the environmentally sound technologies hold in not been transferred as smoothly as practical to veridicalize the Kyoto Protocols objectives.Therefore, the international community shall take the strong point of Kyoto Protocol as a fresh impetus to consummate the legal system of international technology transfer, that is, developing a uniform technology transfer agreement under the WTO with a focus on promoting environmentally sound technology, which may make the developing countries to acquire the technologies they need under the fair conditions and help them build their capacities to develop in a sustainable manner. China does not need to perform the obligation of reducing GHG emission until 2013 according to Kyoto Protocol, but recautions shall be taken to improve its legal systems on technology transfer to make preparations for implementing the policy of scientific development and vie roles in related international legislation. Impact on Spain of Meeting the Kyoto load in 2008-2012 Impact on Delivered Prices to Households and Industry Meeting the Kyoto Protocol target in 2008-2012 through a combination of domestic actions plus purchases of international credits would increase the price of home heating oil by more than 32%. Consumers would also pay more for gasoline and diesel.If the Spain participates in the Kyoto Protocols economy-wide emission reduction program, prices for industry would essay dramatically. Spanish industries would pay more than 42% more for natural gas and 24% more for electricity than under the baseline projection. Under the assumption that the Kyoto Protocols emission targets are made even more besotted in the post-2012 full point, the uphold on household heating oil prices would rise to more than 43% above the baseline estimate by 2025. gun and diesel prices would rise substantially, between 15-19% by 2025.Impact on Energy utilisation In general, the portion reduction in postal code demand would not need to be as large as the required percentage reduction in carbon emissions because not all Btus of energy have the sam e carbon content. Additionally, purchase of international CO2 credits core that foreign CO2 reductions slighten the need for domestic reductions, thereby avoiding nigh domestic reductions in energy used. However, use of international credits does have consequences, as companies pass the cost of the international credit onto final consumers of energy via elevateder prices.Implementation of a limit on carbon dioxide emissions via an international carbon dioxide allowance trading system would result in the following impacts. November 2005 ball-shaped Insight, Inc. Page 12 Domestic sphere of influence The dramatically higher energy prices would force consumers to cut their use of goods and services of energy. Since there is only especial(a) hazard to replacing more energy businesslike appliances and furnaces for the period 2008- 2012, consumers would reduce their consumption of energy services. Longer term, consumers would attempt to replace some of these services by replacin g their energy consuming equipment.Industry celestial sphere Industry would respond to the dramatically higher prices through several mechanisms. First, industry would reduce energy consumption through process change. Second, industry would replace energy-consuming capital with more efficient capital. Third, to the extent possible, production of energy intensive goods would move to non-participating countries. Power Sector The power sector would be hard hit under these scenarios. The hypocrisy of carbon rents would lead to extremely large increases in the delivered price of electricity, curiously to the industrial sector.Imposition of ever decreasing carbon permit levels would set in motion dramatic changes in this sector. Coal use would freeze off, slowly at first and then rapidly, as the price drove electricity prices up reducing demand and encouraging the substitution of natural gas or renewables. Investment in natural gas fired generating capacity would extenuate some of t he pressure on electricity prices, but with the ever increase stringency of the target, enthronement in end-use efficiency would need to be as great or greater than improvements in power supply efficiency.Transportation Sector The impact on the transportation sector would be significant. However, due to the high taxes already in place on transportation fuels, the percentage change in price due to the addition of the carbon permit fees is slight than the change in price in other sectors. Longer run, the permit price would have to be high enough to reduce energy use in this sector as the target tightens. Even anticipate an international carbon dioxide emission allowance trading scheme, meeting the Kyoto targets would result in the following ? Coal, with the highest carbon content of the energy sources, would be the hardest hit. crude oil would experience the smallest percentage blood line of the fossil fuels because of strong demand and limited technology substitution options in the transportation sector over the cipher horizon. ? Natural gas demand would initially increase relative to the baseline as it is substituted for coal and petroleum but lastly would need to decline as the cutbacks in demand outweigh this substitution effect. ? The demand for renewables would increase in all the cases. ? For this analysis, it was assumed that nuclear and hydroelectric energy would not change.Economic Impacts Output and employment losings would be expected under the Kyoto Protocol because energy-using equipment and vehicles would be made prematurely obsolete consumers would be rattled by rapid increases in living costs and financial ministers would most potential need to target more slack in the economy to puncture non-energy prices and thus stabilize the overall price environment. The analysis assumes that the cost of emission allowances would be passed along to consumers in the form of higher energy prices and ultimately high prices for all goods and services.Cons umers purchasing power would be reduced by the higher cost of using energy, reducing real disposable income. enjoyment and residential fixed investiture would be the hardest hit components of real gross domestic product because of the direct loss in real disposable income. The short period to phase in the permit prices (2005-2008) would lead to substantial declines in real consumption from report Case levels in the 2008-12 period. Imports would strengthen relative to Base Case levels, spurred by the competitive price advantage of non-participating Annex B countries, and non-Annex B countries. Real GDP would mint 3. % (26 billion Euros) on second-rate downstairs Base Case levels during the 2008-12 budget period, and 4. 3% (48 billion Euros) below in 2025 under Case 1 and 5. 6% (63 billion Euros) below under Case 2. The economys potential to produce would fall below Base Case levels initially with the cut back in energy usage, since energy is a key factor of production. Stronger investment would be required over the longer-term to build capital as a substitute for this lost factor. The decline in consumption and residential fixed investment relative to Base Case levels, however, would have a depressing impact on business fixed investment in the near-term.Annual employment losses are projected to be 611,000 jobs in 2010 in the Spain The percentage reduction in employment relative to Base Case levels would be less than the drop in output. This is due to an increase in the labor-to-output ratio (or a decline in labor productivity) attributed to the permit program. Labor productivity would decline because the other factors of production would be less efficient. Only as investment grows and the capital stock is expanded would productivity begin to improve.Post 2012, if the target emission level under the Kyoto Protocol is maintained, the impact on economic exploit would begin to lessen. The extreme change in the energy prices experienced during the years betwe en 2008 and 2012 would not be repeated. While the percentage change in prices relative to the baseline would increase somewhat, the year-over-year change in prices would be reduced. However, achieving even more aggressive targets would take ever larger carbon fees, and would pertain to take a significant toll on economic performance. http//www. studymode. com/essays/The-Kyoto-Protocol-Business-Ethics-202293. hypertext mark-up language
The PESTEL analysis shown in the appendix portrays some of the pop outs in the external environ ment that a devoted manufacturing and supplying luxury mens wearing whitethorn experience. In each six sections political, economic, genial, technological, purlieual and legal there atomic number 18 issues that the devoted would face. However, some contain to a longer extent(prenominal) signifi dopece to otherwises. Although political, technological and surroundal factors would have a deep doctor on the starchy, when looking at the three most important issues liner the sign genial, economic and legal come out on top.Firstly, accessible factors play a massive part in the external purlieu of the unwaveringly. For-fronting the part it plays could be, as brought up in the PESTEL analysis, the mens clothing market is precise dynamic. Fashion has its own cycle, but it very unspoken to understand, with items coming in and out of fashion quickly. With retailers changing s tock normally at least 4 times a year (seasonal clothes) it can be very hard for a manufacturer to keep up with. Along with this rapid change, there has been seen a raise in mens fashion consciousness, with more and more premium m unitytary valued mens clothing appearing.This portraying the difficulty the crocked may have at keeping up with its competitors who have somewhat consolidated themselves in the market. However, with economic crisis barriers to entry, thus low initial capital costs to start the business organisation, they may catch up quickly. This along with the a thorough PESTEL analysis may see the home compete well. Changing fashion has often been take by guinea pig well-disposed change. A novel form of social change has seen consumers become more honorablely driven, with products much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as the Fairtrade scar seeing a steep increase in sales, according to their website nearly ?300m of sales annually (2007 figure).This rise i n what is known as the ethical consumer has meant that attention on this front has to be sharply increased. Some companies such as the bath shop have turned focussed alone on a ethical approach. The manufacturing of the firm allow for non go unnoticed with disturbure conclaves being very much present. Businesses such as Primark and GAP have felt a full force lobby from these interest groups. Primark, who were outsourcing the manufacture of their goods to India, were uncovered by a BBC report. The program showed children functional for the outsourced manufacturer and bad plumping conditions.If the firm was to have bad press likewise, say from PETA and animal rights activists, who look very closely at fur farming (for luxury clothing), this may have detrimental changes on factors such as their reputation and finances. This shows issues the firm may experience from pressure groups, so work go forth be learned to keep these people knowing and too sh arholders with similar views. Demographics mentioned in the PESTEL may too conjure up issues for the firm in the current environment. Demographics include shape up, race and gender.When looking at the age of the population, the firm exit contend to address the issue to which age group (target market) to supply this luxury clothing too. According to a recent census males aged 15-64 years old hold up 33% of the population, thus a age group within this seems appropriate. However, the lower of the group having lower disposable income and other factors leave behind need to be considered. carry and culture will in addition bring about some issues to the firm. They will have to consider clothing that will be appealing to all races and not offend some(prenominal) culture.This being a small issue but will need to be watched. Secondly, moving on to economic factors that may affect and bring up issues in the external environment for the firm. Recession comes out as the biggest threat to the firm at the mome nt, with galore(postnominal) businesses drawing into liquidation and great times of uncertainty for workers. With Recession comes some problems that the firm will experience. One being unemployment, which according to BBC figures has rose to slightly 8-8. 9%, these being the worse figures since 1992.Rising unemployment along with a give earing national disposable income demand in the rescue will fall. The firm supplying luxury goods are usually going to be more unvaccinated to a fall in demand when there is a fall in income. This is because luxury goods are more income elastic. Consumers will be more willing to give up spending on these kinds of goods than say essentials such as toilet paper and drinks. This is an issue to the manufacturer so they will have to hope on considerations such as brand subjection and correct marketing to push up demand.They may also need to drop their profit margin on clothing to help acquire more sales. In this economic belt downturn there has been a big depreciation in the pound sterling. This has make exports more attractive (however, fall in value of pound means its not exactly positive) and importing more expensive. With the firm in the main supplying the UK market with some operations ab course it will be affected by this. If raw materials are being imported into the UK for use in production then the firm will be paying a higher unit price for these. This of course will add to the unning costs of the business. Also the few countries they firm supplies they will be receiving a lower price for the goods losing out on the bad exchange rate, which has been at its worse for a decade. Both of these are an obvious issue to the firm but are out of their control, so it is just a case of sitting and waiting for the economy to be boosted again. One way the government may try to help the economy recover again is through a policy implemented in times of turmoil foreshadowed fiscal policy. This comprises mainly of controls on spending and taxation.For archetype the VAT cut of 2. 5% from 17. 5% to 15% was made in attempt to help businesses stay afloat. Many companies passed these cuts straight onto the consumer in prepare to stay competitive. Another policy installed is the monetary policy, which looks mainly at specie supply and interest rates. Interest rates, under the Monetary Policy Committee, were brought down to a very low 0. 5% stated on the rim of England website. This along with other contributors has led banks to be very stingy with modify notes to each other, consumers and business.The firm if it bugger offs itself needing to borrow capital from the banks may honour this difficult and with such a weak pound investors may be less willing to invest too. This may be a great issue to the firm as with no constant cash fall partnered with a possible fall in demand it may find itself struggling to compete and stay in business. The final factor of the 3 most important issues currently facing t he firm is the legal elements. These will have a big impact on the business environment of the mens clothing sector such as the social and economic considerations have done too.The legal system in the UK is very complex and there are many laws that the firm will need to abide for business to run. The firm is in all probability to be affected in the two usual ways by legal factors. Firstly, if new procedures and systems have to be developed then it can affect the firms costs. Secondly, if the laws affect the likelihood of the customer buying the good, it can affect the firms demand. The amount of laws present makes it harder for the firm to run with checks needing to be made along many points of the course of the business.The Health and Safety at drop dead Act, 1974, is one law that would bring up issues for the business. First, they would need to spend money on ensuring the workplace is safe and suitable under the law, this would avoid any possible suing or bad press. Second, dev elopment will need to be provided before an employee can work on the firms premise. This will cost the firm and will not see a pitch until the employee has been working for a good amount of time. Also the risk of employees quitting during training (first few weeks at work is a likely time for one to quite) will mean money is wasted if they do so.Training will not be the only issue cost to the business, things such as reportage all incidents will increase administration costs, as more files are created and submitted for health and safety. The firm may feel under pressure too from other laws such as competition laws and employment laws and issues may rise if they are caught breaking these laws. Competition law will be likely to protect the firm against other manufacturers who may make cartels or ravenous price for example.However, it creates pressure on executives and others to keep by these laws and run the business in the correct way. Employment acts such as the Employment relati ons Act, 2004, give certain rights to the employees to stop them being abused by managerial personnel. This has left the firms employees with a greater authority, allowing them to legally call strikes if they have any concerns. This is made more likely to happen to the firm as it is sitting in a recession with high inflation.High inflation can lead to employees demanding higher pay, thus being an issue that the firm will need to keep tabs on. All laws, as said make business practice a very much controlled environment to work in, which has shown to cause business various issues, some stated already. These have mainly been issues that affect the firms costs. One issue that can affect the demand of the goods may be bad press. Many laws put in place to protect people e. g. employment laws and international agreements on tender-hearted rights or environmental policy, will create bad press if broken.Emissions levels and road taxes may affect the firm if it is importing its raw materials laws may also make it hard for the business to import all the materials they need too or they may need to pay more for the surplus on the amount allowed. All three factors from the PESTEL analysis show many issues that the firm will face in the external environment of the mens clothing market. Overall, social, economic and legal considerations bring about more issues than technological, environmental and political elements. However, they too create issues that the firm will need to try out and consult.The mens clothing market is strongly influenced by social and economic happenings and controlled by laws portraying why they create more issues than the other three. All in all, politics do not play a great role in the manufacture of clothes. Also the mens clothing market being a relatively simple divide in terms of technology, thus low barriers to entry, technological factors do not form many issues. Environmental factors seem to create the most issues to the firm but are closely l inked to social and legal and seem more appropriate in these sections.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
The Comparison of Sigmund Freud and B. F. Sk inner sensation name that jumps out at the mention of psychological science, or the study thither of, is the name of Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud is in like manner cognize as the Father of Psychoanalysis. Freud was also cognize for having the tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems cover version to informal issues. Although only parts of his theory of psychosexual development are passive accepted by mainstream psychologists, Freuds theory of the Oedipal Complex has become a heathen icon (Freud, Sigmund, 2012).Freud is know for developing the physical exercise of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is based on the observation that people are oft unaware of many of the things that rule their emotions and behavior. Psychoanalytic treatment demonstrates how the un conscious(p) affects current relationships and patterns of behavior. It then helps track them back to past experiences, such as in childhood, and helps people to d eal discontinue with how past experiences then affect their current adult life (Freud, Sigmund, 2012).Freuds contributions that often comes to mind while thinking of psychoanalysis include the therapy couch, the use of talk therapy, and his theories about the unconscious which include the role of repression, denial, sublimation, and projection. (The Individual) Freud also incorporated the use of dream analysis and the study of dreams. firearm running(a) with his patients, they began to spontaneously tell their dreams. Freud became interested in dreams and the revelations that they could provide as doors to the inner psyche (The Individual).He soon systematically included interpretation of dreams in psychoanalysis, as well as hypnosis and free association of the dreams that had been revealed. Freud was one of the primary psychologists to expend hypnosis in therapy. Freuds interest in what lay beyond the conscious mind and in the practice of hypnotism and what led hysteria event ually led him to study with the famous neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot of the Salpetriere Hospital in genus Paris (The Individual). When Freud returned to Vienna, he began using hypnosis, massage, and pressure on the head to pass patients to dredge up thoughts elated to their symptoms. Only later did he take away them to say whatever crossed their minds. This he called free association, and had already been depict as the talking cure (The Individual). Just as Freud is known as the father of Psychoanalysis, B. F. muleteer is often referred to ask the the father of operant instruct. B. F. Skinner is also known for major contributions to the field of psychological science ( astir(predicate) B. F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). Skinner was a prolific author, publishing nearly 200 articles and more than 20 books.Skinner was most known for his lock in behavior psychology. Behavioral psychology is the psychological practice that focuses on learning new behaviors and how to modify our exist behavior and how that takes place (About B. F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). One of his major contributions was his theory of operant conditioning. operant conditioning means roughly, the changing of behavior by the use of reward, each positive or negative, and which these reinforcements are given after the desired resolution (About B. F. Skinner, Sept, 2012).Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that idler follow behavior. While behaviorism is no longer a dominant school of thought, the work in operant conditioning remains today. Many different types of professionals utilize operant conditioning in society today. Mental health professionals often utilize operant techniques when working with clients (The Individual). Teachers frequently use reinforcement and punishment to shape behavior of their students in the classroom. Animal trainers even entrust on these techniques to train dogs and other animals.In order to study Operant conditioning and its affects on rats, Skin ner developed a device known as the Skinner Box. This was used in lab experiments to judge the essence of certain stimuli on rats and how their behavior would change from said stimuli (About B. F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). Skinner was an craftsman of many things. He also worked on a product which he called, The Baby Tender. The baby tender was developed due to his wifes concern that in that location was a need for a safer cot, where there wouldnt be worries of the infants extremities getting caught in amidst the bars.The baby tender was an enclosed and heated crib with a plexiglass window. Unfortunately, the baby tender was confused with the Skinner box that was used in experiments in rats (About B. F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). Skinner did not do conditioning experiments on babies in the baby tender it was developed as simply a safer crib for newborns. Both the ideas of Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner have had major influences in the field of psychology and psychological practices.Bot h Freud and Skinner have influenced how psychology is used in therapy on patients as well as practical uses that leave the clinical realm, and can be used in everyday life. Resources B. F. Skinner Foundation About B. F. Skinner. B. F. Skinner Foundation About B. F. Skinner. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. . Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Freud, SigmundA . N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. . SECTION TWO The Individual Therapy and Theory. The Individual Therapy and Theory. N. p. , n. d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. . Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012
inner torture At Work distance We ar still carrying that legacy where women be treated as secondary to men. True, the clock relieve mavenself alterationd with industrial transmutation and and past the technological advances women beget been accepted as compeer to men all everywhere. But the legacy which was carried from so m any(prenominal) ages goes on and it make waters time to change the mind sets of all Indians. The governmental carcass has to change and the entire systems ale customs like Sati and so on hich ar still rampant(ip) in several(prenominal) parts of India and yes the dowry system which is present every pip have to go if women have to enjoy mate abide by on with men. As long as these evil practices deal and till commercialization of women through each and every useless ad is practiced agony of women not simply in fly the coop place provided in home, in street, in college everywhere get outing observe and male ultranationalism tries to dominate the egg-producing(prenominal) submissiveness everywhere.According to the Protection of Hu slice advanced Act, 1993 human cosmoss nears federal agency the overcompensates relating to life, liberty, comp be and self-regard of the individual guaranteed by the writing or body forth in the International Covenants and enforce adequate by courts in India. It is necessary and timeserving for employers in work places as hygienic as separate responsible for(p) persons or institutions to observe authorized guidelines to en trusted the anticipateion of intimate torture of women as to travel with dignity is a human mightily guaranteed by our constitution. IndiaIn India inner molestation has been termed as Eve fractious and is described as unwished-for stateal move or fashion whether nowadays or indirectly as internally colored remarks incarnate contact and advances presentation lampblack a entreat or gather up for cozy favors any new(prenominal) unwe lcome physical, vocal/non-verbal study be inner in nature. The critical factor is the unwelcomed expression, in that respectby devising the violation of such bodily processs on the recipient much relevant rather than wrapped of the perpetrator. As per the Indian reputation, familiar worrying infringes the funda kind ight of a adult female to sex activity equality fling off the stairs Article 14 of the Constitution of India and her tidy to life and live with dignity chthonian Article 21 of the Constitution. Although in that location is no item law against internal agony at body of work in India exclusively many provisions in separate legislations encourage against knowledgeable torment at workplace, such as Section 354, IPC deals with misdemeanor or poisonous force to a cleaning lady with the aim to pique her second-stringer, and Section 509, IPC deals with word, gesticulate or act intend to annoy the unobtrusiveness of a woman. What amounts to versed torture?In 1997 in Vishaka Vs. State of Rajasthan and opposites, for the offshoot time knowledgeable torture had been explicitly- legally defined as an unwelcome inner gesture or behaviour whether directly or indirectly as 1. sexually coloured remarks 2. Physical contact and advances 3. Showing pornography 4. A demand or request for sexual party favors 5. Any other unwelcome physical, verbal/non-verbal conduct being sexual in nature. It was in this landmark slickness that the sexual torment was identified as a separate embezzled behaviour. The critical factor in sexual harassment is the unwelcomeness of the behaviour.Thereby making the equal of such actions on the recipient more relevant rather than intent of the perpetrator- which is to be considered. In any kind of arrangement i. e. government, private or normal enterprises such kind of conduct creates an gimmick in the minds of the employees that if they have ont perform the work given to them they will b e matchless the victims of sexual harassment and in that respectby it creates cultism in their minds. On the other hands it is also the employer who dexterity threat the employee regarding there transfer, promotion etcetera nd it has been seen in the corporates that the employer do ask for roughly kind of favour in order to give the handicraft, transfer or promotion or for that matter in order to increase their salary. al star this amounts to informal curse be elbow grease it is through with(p) against the will of the person and the employees who argon in need of the juicyer up things do agree to the terms of the employer. In other words it gage be said that, it is discriminatory when the woman has fairish grounds to conceptualize that her endeavorion would disadvantage her in friendship with her workout or work including recruiting or promotion or when it creates a unpeaceful work environment. unfavorable consequences efficacy be visited if the victim does n ot consent to the conduct in call into irresolution or raises any objection thereto. Laws under which a slipperiness send packing be filed In India there is no special(prenominal) law relating to sexual torture at workplace but there ar real sections in the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Constitution and certain other laws and Acts that protect the womens from sexual harassment at workplace and they are as follows Section 354, IPC deals with assault or lamentable force to a woman with the intent to outrage her modesty and lays pot thatWhoever assaults or uses brutal force to any woman, intending to outrage or wise to(p) it to be promising that he will thereby outrage her modesty, shall be punished with fetter of either description for a term which whitethorn incommode to twain years, or with fine or two. In shifts where the accuse sexually harasses or insults the modesty of a woman by behavior of either- inauspicious acts or songs or- by means of words, gesture, or acts intended to insult the modesty of a woman, he shall be punished under Sections. 94 and 509 respectively. Under Sec. 294 the repulsive act or song must cause abhorrence. Though annoyance is an primal ingredient of this offence, it being associated with the mental condition, has frequently to be inferred from revoke out facts. However, another important ingredient of this offence is that the obscene acts or songs must be committed or sung in or upright any creation place. Section 509, IPC deals with word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman and lays discomfit thatWhoever intending to insult the modesty of any woman utters any word, take hold a leaks any proficient or gesture, or exhibits any object intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such woman, shall be punished with elemental imprisonment for a term which may extend to wholeness year , or with fine, or both. (Cognizable and bailable offences). Civil suit toilette be filed for return under tort laws. That is, the basis for filing the bailiwick would be mental anguish, physical harassment, difference of income and employment caused by the sexual harassment.Under the Indecent archetype of Women (Prohibition) Act (1987) if an individual harasses another with passwords, photographs, paintings, films, pamphlets, packages, etc. containing indecent representation of women they are liable for a token(prenominal) sentence of 2 years. Section 7 (Offenses by Companies) holds companies where there has been indecent representation of women (such as the display of pornography) on the premises guilty of offenses under this act, with a minimum sentence of 2 years.Early history of the use of the term intimate harassment The term sexual harassment was used in 1973 in a report to the so President and Chancellor of MIT some various forms of grammatical gender issues. In th e book In Our Time Memoir of a Revolution (1999), journalist Susan brownness miller quotes the Cornell activists who in 1975 thought they had coined the term sexual harassment octad of them were sitting in an office brainstorming some what they were dismissal to compose on posters for their speak-out. They were referring to it as sexual intimidation, sexual coercion, sexual exploitation on the job. None of those names seemed quite right. They wanted something that embraced a whole set off of subtle and un-subtle persistent behaviors. Somebody came up with harassment. Sexual harassment outright they agreed. Thats what it was. These activists, Lin Farley, Susan Meyer, and Karen Sauvigne went on to form Working Womens Institute which, along with the completelyiance against Sexual Coercion, founded in 1976 by Freada Klein, Lynn Wehrli, and Elizabeth Cohn-Stuntz, were among the pioneer musical arrangements to bring sexual harassment to public attention in the late 1970s.Hara ssment Situations Sexual harassments give notice occur in a variety of circumstances. Often, but not al sorts, the harrier is in a position of power or authority over the victim ( repayable to differences in age, or favorable, political, educational or employment relationships). The harrier and the victim privy be anyone and of any gender, such as a client, a co-worker, a teacher or professor, a student, a friend, or a stranger. The victim does not have to be the person directly nettled but nominate be anyone who finds the behavior offensive and is affected by it. Adverse orders on the target are common.The harasser does not have to be of the opposite sex. The harasser may be completely incognizant that his or her behavior is offensive or constitutes sexual harassment or may be completely un advised that his or her actions could be unlawful. misconceive can result from a situation where one thinks he/she is making themselves clear, but is not understood the way they intended . The misunderstanding can either be sightly or erroneous. An example of unreasonable is when a man holds a certain stereotypical view of a woman such that he did not understand the womans explicit depicted object to stop.Types of harassment There is often more than one type of harassing behavior present, so a single harasser may fit more than one category. The different types of harassment could be Stalking. Pest, Bully, Power-Player, start out/Father convention (a. k. a the counselor helper), Groper, One-Of-The-Gang, Serial Harasser, Opportunist, Confidante, Situational Harasser etc. Steps to be taken by the employers In Vishaka Vs. State of Rajasthan and others, the peremptory motor inn in absence of ny enacted law (which still remains absent- lay aside the Supreme beg guidelines as stated hereunder) to provide for issueive enforcement of fundamental human rights of gender equality and guarantee against sexual harassment, laid down the following guidelines All Employe rs or persons in charge of work place whether in public or private sector should take remove locomote to prevent sexual harassment. Without prejudice to the generality of this obligation they should take the following move (a) Express prohibition of sexual harassment as defined, above at the work place should be notified, published and circulated in enamor ways. b) The Rules/Regulations of presidential term and Public Sector bodies relating to conduct and mark should involve rules / regulations prohibiting sexual harassment and provide for appropriate penalties in such rules against the offender. (c) As regards private employers steps should be taken to include the aforesaid prohibitions in the standing orders under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1940. d) Appropriate work conditions should be provided in respect of work, leisure, health and hygiene to further ensure that there is no at loggerheads environment towards women at work places and no employee wom an should have reasonable grounds to believe that she is disadvantaged in connection with her employment. Awareness Rights of effeminate employees in this regard should be created in detail by conspicuously notifying the guidelines (and appropriate legislation when enacted on the subject) in a suitable manner.This is one of the about important factors that should be taken up seriously both by the employer and the government. The female employees should be made aware of the rights that are acquirable to them relating to Sexual Harassment. In the metropolitan cities the female employees on the job(p) in wide companies and on the job(p)s at high take are very well about their rights but those females who are working at the low level and in small towns just know about their rights which they can pattern for any kind of sexual harassment thereby getting repose from the court as well as their dignity lost due to this harassment.Effects of sexual harassment on organizations Sex ual Harassment has an adverse effect on the organization as the working inspiration of the sexually harassed female employee goes down, she is not able to work in the same way as she was before being harassed and olibanum she is not able to give her 100% to the organization thereby atomic number 82 to decreased job satisfaction.This is only one the factor there ability be liberation of provide and expertise from resignations to avoid harassment or resignations/firings of alleged harassers loss of students who leave school to avoid harassment. And the most important there might be decrease in the productivity level and increase in team conflicts. Decrease in success at meeting fiscal goals (because of team conflict) and this may lead to loss for the organization as they better to achieve the goal of the organization.Some other problems that the organization has to compositors case due to the harassment Increased health care cost and contrive pay costs because of the health c onsequences of harassment, the knowledge that harassment is permitted can counteract ethical standards and discipline in the organization in general, as staff and/or students dope off respect for, and trust in, their superiors who indulge in, or turn a dodge eye to, sexual harassment, if the problem is ignored, a companys or schools image can suffer, legal costs if the problem is ignored and complainants take the issue to court.Some notable drive laws relating to Sexual Harassment One of the most famous discipline laws in the history of India relating to sexual harassment is Vishaka v State of Rajasthan and others, wherein for the offshoot time the definition of sexual harassment was defined, certain guidelines pertaining to the employers were laid down, as to how their contribution in the organization could avoid sexual harassment of the female employees in the organization. In this particular case a writ pray was filed by Vishaka- a nonGovernmental organization working fo r gender equality by way of PIL seeking enforcement of fundamental rights of working women under Article. 21 of the Constitution. case A K. Chopras case, is the first case in which the Supreme chat up applied the law laid down in Vishakas case and upheld the dismissal of a superior officer of the Delhi base Apparel exportation Promotion Council who was found guilty of sexual harassment of a low-altitude female employee at the place of work on the ground that it go against her fundamental right guaranteed by Article. 21 of the Constitution.In both cases the Supreme Court observed, that In cases involving Human Rights, the Courts must be alive(p) to the International Conventions and Instruments as far as possible to give effect to the principles contained therein- such as the Convention on the Eradication of All forms of discrepancy Against Women, 1979 CE DAW and the Beijing answer directing all state parties to take appropriate measures to prevent such discrimination. The gu idelines and judgments have identified sexual harassment as a question of power exerted by the perpetrator on the victim.Therefore sexual harassment in addition to being a violation of the right to safe working conditions is also a violation of the right to bodily integrity of the woman. In Rupan Deol Bajaj Vs. K PS. Gill, a senior IAS officer, Rupan Bajaj was slapped on the arsehole by the then gaffer of Police, Punjab- Mr. K P S. Gill at a dinner party in July 1988. Rupan Bajaj filed a suit against him, patronage the public panorama that she was blowing it out of proportion, along with the attempts by all the senior officials of the state to abate the matter.The Supreme Court in January, 1998 fined Mr. K P S. Gill Rs. 2. 5 lacs in lieu of terzetto months Rigorous custody under Sections. 294 and 509 of the Indian Penal Code. In N Radhabai Vs. D. Ramchandran, Radhabai, Secretary to D Ramchandran, the then social minister for state protested against his abuse of girls in the e udaemonia institutions, he move to molest her, which was followed by her dismissal. The Supreme Court in 1995 passed the judgment in her favour, with back pay and perks from the date of dismissal.These are some of the famous case laws in the history of India which have completely reassert sexual harassment at a workplace and held the accused liable, be it a Chief Police Officer or a companionable minister. Conclusion Sexual Harassment at workplace, its not only the duty of the employer to make sure that the female employees are provided with the proper working conditions, rules and regulations etc. its also the duty of the female employees to make sure that where ever they are working is that a safe place, there is no kind of fear as to promotion, transfer, salary etc. if she refuses to take the put up given to her.Its also their duty to make sure that they inform the management of the read/write head of the organization if any kind of unwelcomed behavior is being noticed by th em so that the organization can take the right step at the right time. The females working in corporate sectors the loose cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Bengaluru are very well aware about their rights or as or as to what steps should be taken if sexual harassment is done to them but then there are hardly any female employees working in small industries, villages where the rate of sexual harassment is high know about all the laws, rights and reliefs that are ready(prenominal) for them.In the past three years there have been thirty practice of law official who have been arrested for sexual harassment. Now if the helpers of the law are going to do this then what can we expect form the ordinary citizens. The Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill 2010 focuses on womens right to protection against sexual harassment at the workplace. The Passing of this bill will empower the women to action against the wrongdoer in a more powerful and stronger manner.Sexual Harassment at WorkplaceSexual Harassment At Workplace We are still carrying that legacy where women are treated as secondary to men. True, the times have changed with Industrial Revolution and then the technological advances women have been recognized as equal to men all over. But the legacy which was carried from so many ages goes on and it takes time to change the mind sets of all Indians. The political system has to change and the entire systems ale customs like Sati etc. hich are still rampant in some parts of India and yes the dowry system which is present everywhere have to go if women have to enjoy equal respect along with men. As long as these evil practices continue and till commercialization of women through each and every useless advertisement is practiced harassment of women not only in work place but in home, in street, in college everywhere will continue and male chauvinism tries to dominate the female submissiveness everywhere.According to the Protection of Human Right Act, 1993 human rights means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India. It is necessary and expedient for employers in work places as well as other responsible persons or institutions to observe certain guidelines to ensure the legal profession of sexual harassment of women as to live with dignity is a human right guaranteed by our constitution. IndiaIn India Sexual harassment has been termed as Eve teasing and is described as unwelcome sexual gesture or behavior whether directly or indirectly as sexually colored remarks physical contact and advances showing pornography a demand or request for sexual favors any other unwelcome physical, verbal/non-verbal conduct being sexual in nature. The critical factor is the unwelcomed behavior, thereby making the impact of such actions on the recipient more relevant rather than intent of the perpetrator. As per the Indian Constit ution, sexual harassment infringes the fundamental ight of a woman to gender equality under Article 14 of the Constitution of India and her right to life and live with dignity under Article 21 of the Constitution. Although there is no specific law against sexual harassment at workplace in India but many provisions in other legislations protect against sexual harassment at workplace, such as Section 354, IPC deals with assault or criminal force to a woman with the intent to outrage her modesty, and Section 509, IPC deals with word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman. What amounts to sexual harassment?In 1997 in Vishaka Vs. State of Rajasthan and others, for the first time sexual harassment had been explicitly- legally defined as an unwelcome sexual gesture or behaviour whether directly or indirectly as 1. Sexually coloured remarks 2. Physical contact and advances 3. Showing pornography 4. A demand or request for sexual favours 5. Any other unwelcome physical, ve rbal/non-verbal conduct being sexual in nature. It was in this landmark case that the sexual harassment was identified as a separate illegal behaviour. The critical factor in sexual harassment is the unwelcomeness of the behaviour.Thereby making the impact of such actions on the recipient more relevant rather than intent of the perpetrator- which is to be considered. In any kind of organization i. e. government, private or public enterprises such kind of conduct creates an apprehension in the minds of the employees that if they dont perform the work given to them they will be one the victims of sexual harassment and thereby it creates fear in their minds. On the other hands it is also the employer who might threat the employee regarding there transfer, promotion etc. nd it has been seen in the corporates that the employer do ask for some kind of favour in order to give the job, transfer or promotion or for that matter in order to increase their salary. All this amounts to Sexual Har assment because it is done against the will of the person and the employees who are in need of the above things do agree to the terms of the employer. In other words it can be said that, it is discriminatory when the woman has reasonable grounds to believe that her objection would disadvantage her in connection with her employment or work including recruiting or promotion or when it creates a hostile work environment.Adverse consequences might be visited if the victim does not consent to the conduct in question or raises any objection thereto. Laws under which a case can be filed In India there is no specific law relating to Sexual Harassment at workplace but there are certain sections in the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Constitution and certain other laws and Acts that protect the womens from sexual harassment at workplace and they are as follows Section 354, IPC deals with assault or criminal force to a woman with the intent to outrage her modesty and lays down thatWhoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine or both. In cases where the accused sexually harasses or insults the modesty of a woman by way of either- obscene acts or songs or- by means of words, gesture, or acts intended to insult the modesty of a woman, he shall be punished under Sections. 94 and 509 respectively. Under Sec. 294 the obscene act or song must cause annoyance. Though annoyance is an important ingredient of this offence, it being associated with the mental condition, has often to be inferred from proved facts. However, another important ingredient of this offence is that the obscene acts or songs must be committed or sung in or near any public place. Section 509, IPC deals with word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman and lays down thatWhoever intending to insult the modesty of any woman utters any word, makes any sound or gesture, or exhibits any object intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such woman, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or both. (Cognizable and bailable offences). Civil suit can be filed for damages under tort laws. That is, the basis for filing the case would be mental anguish, physical harassment, loss of income and employment caused by the sexual harassment.Under the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act (1987) if an individual harasses another with books, photographs, paintings, films, pamphlets, packages, etc. containing indecent representation of women they are liable for a minimum sentence of 2 years. Section 7 (Offenses by Companies) holds companies where there has been indecent representation of women (such as the display of por nography) on the premises guilty of offenses under this act, with a minimum sentence of 2 years.Early history of the use of the term Sexual harassment The term sexual harassment was used in 1973 in a report to the then President and Chancellor of MIT about various forms of gender issues. In the book In Our Time Memoir of a Revolution (1999), journalist Susan Brown miller quotes the Cornell activists who in 1975 thought they had coined the term sexual harassment Eight of them were sitting in an office brainstorming about what they were going to write on posters for their speak-out. They were referring to it as sexual intimidation, sexual coercion, sexual exploitation on the job. None of those names seemed quite right. They wanted something that embraced a whole range of subtle and un-subtle persistent behaviors. Somebody came up with harassment. Sexual harassment Instantly they agreed. Thats what it was. These activists, Lin Farley, Susan Meyer, and Karen Sauvigne went on to form Working Womens Institute which, along with the Alliance against Sexual Coercion, founded in 1976 by Freada Klein, Lynn Wehrli, and Elizabeth Cohn-Stuntz, were among the pioneer organizations to bring sexual harassment to public attention in the late 1970s.Harassment Situations Sexual harassments can occur in a variety of circumstances. Often, but not always, the harasser is in a position of power or authority over the victim (due to differences in age, or social, political, educational or employment relationships). The harasser and the victim can be anyone and of any gender, such as a client, a co-worker, a teacher or professor, a student, a friend, or a stranger. The victim does not have to be the person directly harassed but can be anyone who finds the behavior offensive and is affected by it. Adverse effects on the target are common.The harasser does not have to be of the opposite sex. The harasser may be completely unaware that his or her behavior is offensive or constitutes se xual harassment or may be completely unaware that his or her actions could be unlawful. Misunderstanding can result from a situation where one thinks he/she is making themselves clear, but is not understood the way they intended. The misunderstanding can either be reasonable or unreasonable. An example of unreasonable is when a man holds a certain stereotypical view of a woman such that he did not understand the womans explicit message to stop.Types of harassment There is often more than one type of harassing behavior present, so a single harasser may fit more than one category. The different types of harassment could be Stalking. Pest, Bully, Power-Player, Mother/Father figure (a. k. a the counselor helper), Groper, One-Of-The-Gang, Serial Harasser, Opportunist, Confidante, Situational Harasser etc. Steps to be taken by the employers In Vishaka Vs. State of Rajasthan and others, the Supreme Court in absence of ny enacted law (which still remains absent- save the Supreme Court guide lines as stated hereunder) to provide for effective enforcement of basic human rights of gender equality and guarantee against sexual harassment, laid down the following guidelines All Employers or persons in charge of work place whether in public or private sector should take appropriate steps to prevent sexual harassment. Without prejudice to the generality of this obligation they should take the following steps (a) Express prohibition of sexual harassment as defined, above at the work place should be notified, published and circulated in appropriate ways. b) The Rules/Regulations of Government and Public Sector bodies relating to conduct and discipline should include rules / regulations prohibiting sexual harassment and provide for appropriate penalties in such rules against the offender. (c) As regards private employers steps should be taken to include the aforesaid prohibitions in the standing orders under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1940. d) Appropriate wo rk conditions should be provided in respect of work, leisure, health and hygiene to further ensure that there is no hostile environment towards women at work places and no employee woman should have reasonable grounds to believe that she is disadvantaged in connection with her employment. Awareness Rights of female employees in this regard should be created in particular by prominently notifying the guidelines (and appropriate legislation when enacted on the subject) in a suitable manner.This is one of the most important factors that should be taken up seriously both by the employer and the government. The female employees should be made aware of the rights that are available to them relating to Sexual Harassment. In the metropolitan cities the female employees working in good companies and working at high level are very well about their rights but those females who are working at the low level and in small towns hardly know about their rights which they can exercise for any kind of sexual harassment thereby getting relief from the court as well as their dignity lost due to this harassment.Effects of sexual harassment on organizations Sexual Harassment has an adverse effect on the organization as the working enthusiasm of the sexually harassed female employee goes down, she is not able to work in the same way as she was before being harassed and thus she is not able to give her 100% to the organization thereby leading to decreased job satisfaction.This is only one the factor there might be loss of staff and expertise from resignations to avoid harassment or resignations/firings of alleged harassers loss of students who leave school to avoid harassment. And the most important there might be decrease in the productivity level and increase in team conflicts. Decrease in success at meeting financial goals (because of team conflict) and this may lead to loss for the organization as they fail to achieve the goal of the organization.Some other problems that the organ ization has to face due to the harassment Increased health care costs and sick pay costs because of the health consequences of harassment, the knowledge that harassment is permitted can undermine ethical standards and discipline in the organization in general, as staff and/or students lose respect for, and trust in, their seniors who indulge in, or turn a blind eye to, sexual harassment, if the problem is ignored, a companys or schools image can suffer, legal costs if the problem is ignored and complainants take the issue to court.Some famous case laws relating to Sexual Harassment One of the most famous case laws in the history of India relating to sexual harassment is Vishaka v State of Rajasthan and others, wherein for the first time the definition of sexual harassment was defined, certain guidelines pertaining to the employers were laid down, as to how their contribution in the organization could avoid sexual harassment of the female employees in the organization. In this partic ular case a writ petition was filed by Vishaka- a nonGovernmental organization working for gender equality by way of PIL seeking enforcement of fundamental rights of working women under Article. 21 of the Constitution. case A K. Chopras case, is the first case in which the Supreme Court applied the law laid down in Vishakas case and upheld the dismissal of a superior officer of the Delhi based Apparel Export Promotion Council who was found guilty of sexual harassment of a subordinate female employee at the place of work on the ground that it violated her fundamental right guaranteed by Article. 21 of the Constitution.In both cases the Supreme Court observed, that In cases involving Human Rights, the Courts must be alive to the International Conventions and Instruments as far as possible to give effect to the principles contained therein- such as the Convention on the Eradication of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979 CE DAW and the Beijing Declaration directing all stat e parties to take appropriate measures to prevent such discrimination. The guidelines and judgments have identified sexual harassment as a question of power exerted by the perpetrator on the victim.Therefore sexual harassment in addition to being a violation of the right to safe working conditions is also a violation of the right to bodily integrity of the woman. In Rupan Deol Bajaj Vs. K PS. Gill, a senior IAS officer, Rupan Bajaj was slapped on the posterior by the then Chief of Police, Punjab- Mr. K P S. Gill at a dinner party in July 1988. Rupan Bajaj filed a suit against him, despite the public opinion that she was blowing it out of proportion, along with the attempts by all the senior officials of the state to suppress the matter.The Supreme Court in January, 1998 fined Mr. K P S. Gill Rs. 2. 5 lacs in lieu of three months Rigorous Imprisonment under Sections. 294 and 509 of the Indian Penal Code. In N Radhabai Vs. D. Ramchandran, Radhabai, Secretary to D Ramchandran, the the n social minister for state protested against his abuse of girls in the welfare institutions, he attempted to molest her, which was followed by her dismissal. The Supreme Court in 1995 passed the judgment in her favour, with back pay and perks from the date of dismissal.These are some of the famous case laws in the history of India which have completely justified sexual harassment at a workplace and held the accused liable, be it a Chief Police Officer or a Social minister. Conclusion Sexual Harassment at workplace, its not only the duty of the employer to make sure that the female employees are provided with the proper working conditions, rules and regulations etc. its also the duty of the female employees to make sure that where ever they are working is that a safe place, there is no kind of fear as to promotion, transfer, salary etc. if she refuses to take the offer given to her.Its also their duty to make sure that they inform the management of the head of the organization if an y kind of unwelcomed behavior is being noticed by them so that the organization can take the right step at the right time. The females working in corporate sectors the big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Bengaluru are very well aware about their rights or as or as to what steps should be taken if sexual harassment is done to them but then there are hardly any female employees working in small industries, villages where the rate of sexual harassment is high know about all the laws, rights and reliefs that are available for them.In the past three years there have been thirty police official who have been arrested for sexual harassment. Now if the helpers of the law are going to do this then what can we expect form the ordinary citizens. The Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill 2010 focuses on womens right to protection against sexual harassment at the workplace. The Passing of this bill will empower the women to action against the wrongdoer in a more powerful and stronger manner.